Copyright (c) 2004 Patricia J. Donegan and David Stampe
This file is part of the Munda Lexical Archive.  Munda Lexical Files
are neither complete nor error-free.  But they may be copied, corrected,
augmented, translated, transliterated, re-arranged, redistributed, or
republished in any form, provided that such derivative works explicitly
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use by speakers and students of the languages they describe, in perpetuity.  

STAMPE-DM--MP.NEW.84, 20-Jun-85 13:32:53, Edit by STAMPE-D
 Pinnow Versuch and Munda's thesis combined, ASCII-sorted by Sa. form,
~1150 entries, 10000 ll.; joinings A-C, E-G, P-End; entries to be split
marked ##.  Format not final.
 (Edited version of M--MP., which cd be discarded after reading its notes.)
So. A-(D) `prefixed to possessed noun'.
  ~ -atE(M) `genitive suffix'.  E.g. JEn-atE `mine', amAn-atE `yours'.
Kh. -a? `genitive'.
Ju. -a `genitive'.
Sa. -a? `genitive'.
Mu. -a? `genitive'.

So. JAGa(D) `bow'.
Gu. olmba? `bow'.
Re. wa'(F),, wak'(B),, oya'(B),, oyak'(B) `bow'.
Gt. haea~(S) `bow'.
Kh. ka?(ABD) `bow'.
Ju. ka.kag(MP),, kakkad(K),, kakkar(K)/ kag(MP) `bow'.
Sa. a? `bow'.
Mu. a?
  ~ aa? `bow'.
Ho a'-sar `bow and arrow'.  | sar `arrow'.
Bh. a? `bow'.
KW a?
  ~ aa?
|Pal. a'.

``^feed, cause to eat'':
Sa. a-jO `to feed'.
Mu. a-jOm `to feed'.
KW a-jOm
|Causative of jOm `to eat'; loss of m in Santali unexplained, cf. S jOm to eat.

``^they, 3rd_person plural'':
Sa. a-kO `they (pl.)'.
Mu. a-kO `they (pl.)'.
KW a-kO

``^drink, cause to drink'':
Sa. a-nu `to cause to drink'.
Mu. a-nu `to cause to drink'.
KW a-nu

So. Ab- `causative prefix'.  !plus An-, etc.  E.g. Ab-ga `to cause to drink'.
Go. ab-
  ~ a: `causative prefix'.  ??
Gu. ob(Z) `causative prefix'.
Re. ob(B) `causative prefix'.
Gt. a(C) `causative prefix'.
Kh. ob(BDP)
  ~ o(BP) `causative prefix'.  !plus u.
Ju. ob(P)
  ~ o(P) `causative prefix'.  !plus ab(P), u(P).
Sa. a `causative prefix'.  E.g. a-nu `to cause to drink'.
Mu. a `causative prefix'.  E.g. a-nu `to cause to drink'.

``^husk, ^shell'':
Gu. ab-(2) `to husk, to shell, to remove the pod of'.
Gu. an-ab(Bh.) `chaff, husk'.
Re. an-ab(2) `pig feed [2], chaff, husk [Bh.]'.
GR ab-(2)
So. Ab-(H) `to shell (beans, nuts)'.

So. A- `to wash', in A-jeG `to wash one's legs', A-si `to wash one's hands'.
Kh. amun `to wash face (teeth??) with a stick'.
Sa. a'b `to wash one's face'.
  ~ AbuG
  ~ Abuk `to wash hands, feet, and mouth, to wash a child'.  !M ? for k
Mu. ab
  ~ aab `to wash one's face'.
  ~ abuG `to wash'.
Bh. abuG `to wash any part of the body'.
Ku. abuG `to wash any part of the body'.
Sa. ab `to wash one's face'.
KW ab
  ~ abu?
  ~ abuG
|Analyzable ab-u?, ab-uG; if we reconstruct with ?, the pre-Mundari form can be explained in terms of its association with the reflexive suffix -En, i.e. * abu'-En - * abug-En - abuG-En (RDM).

So. amben/ ben `you pl.'.  !prob. really to * pe `you pl., i.e. * am-pe-n - amben; cf. instead the dual imperative suffix -be?? (DS)'.
Sa. aben `you two'.
Sa. abEn `you two'.
Ma. a-ben `you two'.
Mu. abEn `you two'.
Ho a-ben `you two'.
Bh. a-ben `you two'.
As. aban `you two'.
KW a-bEn
@(V055,V175,M083, cf. V053,V175a)

Sa. abo
  ~ abon `we, you and I (inclusive)'.
Ma. abo
  ~ abon `we, you and I (inclusive)'.
Mu. abu `we, you and I (inclusive)'.
Bh. abo
  ~ abon `we, you and I (inclusive)'.
Dh. abu `we, you and I (inclusive)'.
Ku. abuG `we, you and I (inclusive)'.
KW abO`

Sa. acu `to employ'.
Mu. acu `to employ'.
KW acu

Sa. acur `to return'.
Mu. acur `to return'.
KW acur

``^lose, loan'':
Sa. ad `to lose; to loan'.
Mu. ad `to lose; to loan'.
KW ad
@(M098, M127)

Gu. ad-(3) `to drive cattle'.
Re. a=jur(2) `to drive'.
GR ad-(2)
Gt. a'- in a'-wig=tur=wela(M) `twilight, lit. time to drive home the cattle' ( wig-(M) `to return home')  [?perh. a'- is just causative?].
So. aD-(DL) `to drive'.

``^enter, ^bring_^in'':
Kh. Diyar `to enter'.
Sa. adEr `to bring in, to put in, insert'.
Mu. adEr `to take inside, to bring in, to enter'.
Bh. ader `to take inside'.
KW adEr
Ku. hadir
  ~ adir `to arrive'.
Na. a:dir-i: `reached'.

So. DiJ(D) `to cook'.
Go. DiJ(Z) `to cook'.
  ~ Dij(Z) `to fry'.
Gu. DoJ(Z) `to cook'.
Re. Do~i(B) `to cook (a vegetable)'.
Gt. Doe(C) `to cook'.
Kh. DeJ(AB)
  ~ dEG(D) `to cook (pulse, vegetables, etc.)'.
Ju. DeJ(MP) `to cook [P], to simmer [M]'.
Mu. adiG `kitchen, inner apartment of a house set apart for worship'.
Ho adiG `kitchen, inner apartment of a house set apart for worship'.
|Kh. E from * i perhaps due to the first vowel in an original form * OdiG, cf. the Mundari (HJP). But the Mundari appears to have a nom. prefix; more likely the vowel differences are due to the influence of a following * J, often merged with G after palatal vowels (DS).

So. DO(D)
  ~ dOG(D) `and, so'.
Gu. DoG(Z) `and'.
Re. Du(B)
  ~ Ru(B) `or'.
Gt. Rik(C) `also'.
Kh. eDo?(AB)
  ~ oDo?(AB) `and, also, et_cetera'.
  ~ oRo?(D)
  ~ Ro?(D)
  ~ ro(B) `and, also, again, et cetera, moreover'.
  ~ ere-Do(D) `and then'.
Sa. aDO `and'.
Mu. haDO?
  ~ ODO? `and'.
KW haDO?
|Except in the first Mundari form, h is dropped, and the second Mundari form also has assimilated V1 a to V2 O (RDM); cf. DO `emphatic' (DS).

Kh. haDa
  ~ haDa?(Ridd.232) `urine, to urinate'.
Sa. aDO `urine, to urinate'.
  ~ aRu `urine, to urinate'.
  ~ Duki `urine, to urinate'.  ! aDu(M); -ki as in Ku. su-ki-n `to smell'.
Ho duki `urine, to urinate'.  !i.e. prob. Duki (HJP)
Bh. aDu
  ~ aRu `urine, to urinate'.

Sa. aG
  ~ aG-ga `to be morning; morning'.
Mu. aG `to be morning; morning'.
|Sa. -ga unidentified (RDM).

``^be ^taboo'':
Re. aG-(2) `to be taboo'.
GR aG-(2)
So. aG `to abstain'.

Gu. aG=suG(2) `to walk'.  | -suG\ susuG(2) `foot'.
GR aG=(2)

Gu. am=toG(2) `to open the mouth'.  ( -toG CF of tumo'(2) `mouth')
  ~ am=da'(2) `to sigh, to yawn'.
  ~ am=roj(2) `to smear, to rub on'.  !noncog
Re. am=pirig=mod-(2) `to blink'.
  ~ aGob=da'(2) `to yawn'.
GR am=(2)
So. aG-tAm-(L) `to keep the mouth open'.
  ~ aG-eb-da-(L) `to yawn'.
  ~ aG-mAD-(L) `to open the eyes'.
|See `yawn'.

So. aG-tAm `to open the mouth'.  | tAm\ tO'OD `mouth'.
  ~ AGeb-da(D) `to yawn'.  ??A/a
Go. aGub-Da?a-(Z) `to yawn'.
Gu. am-Da?(Z) `to yawn, to sigh'.
  ~ a:bda:(P)
  ~ aGgo:diya(P) `to yawn'.
Re. a'b-Rak'-(B) `to yawn'.
  ~ a:Gubda:(P) `to yawn'.
Kh. aGgO'bDa?(P)
  ~ aG-a'b-Da?(B) `to yawn'.
Ju. aGa--tOm-(M) `to yawn'.  | tOm\ tOmOD `mouth'.
Sa. aGgO'b `to yawn, gape'.
Mu. aGgO'b `to yawn, gape'.
Ku. aGgub `to yawn, gape'.
KW aGgOb
|See `open'.

``^dig, dig up'':
Gu. ag-(2,3) `to dig, dig up'.
GR ag-(2,3)
Gt. ia'(3) `to dig [3], to break [&]'.

Sa. Agu `to bring, fetch, take, get'.
Mu. au
  ~ agu `to bring'.  ??au error? not commented on or reconstructed.
Ho agu `to bring'.
Bh. agu `to take away'.
KW agu
Ku. sage `to take away'.
|Cf. `carry on shoulder'.

So. Agai `alas'.
Gu. a:ha: `alas'.
Kh. hare
  ~ haere `alas'.
Ju. aha: `alas'.
Sa. aha
  ~ ah `alas'.
Mu. hae hae
  ~ hae re
  ~ ah `alas'.
Ku. hay.hay
  ~ harere `alas'.
Na. ha: `alas'.

``^he, she, it, 3rd_person singular'':
Sa. aj `he, she, it, 3rd_person singular'.
Mu. aj `he, she, it, 3rd_person singular'.
KW aj

Gu. ai-(2) `to finish'.
GR ai-(2)
So. -aj verbal suffix indicating `completely, entirely'.

Kh. ajur `to empty (a vessel)'.
Sa. AjAuRi `vacant, empty, spare, unoccupied(?)'.
  ~ ujAR `deserted, desolate'.
Mu. ajar
  ~ ajOr
  ~ ajOrO `to instil drop by drop'.
  ~ ajauRi `free time, leisure, to empty out (of vessels, baskets and the like)'.  !(EM)

So. ayi `younger sister'.  ! ayi-G `vocative'.
Kh. aji `elder brother's wife'.
Ju. ajiG `elder sister'.
Sa. Aji `elder sister'.
Mu. aji `elder sister, grandmother'.
Ho aji `elder sister'.
Bh. aji `elder sister'.
KW aji
Ku. aji `sister-in-law'.

Sa. aJjEd `dry; to get dry'.
Mu. aJjEd `dry; to get dry'.
KW aJjEd
@(M083, M104)

So. AmDAG(D)
  ~ AndAG(D) `to hear'.  !Latter form Gumma dialect.
Gu. oG(Z) `to hear, to listen'.  [past oGgo?-niG(&)].
Re. oG-(B) `to hear'.  [past oG-o?-niG(&)].
  ~ oG-luk'-(B) `to be heard'.
GR AG(2)
Gt. o~(CM) `to listen, hear, heed, obey, agree, respond'.  [past o~-ke(&), fut. o~-e(&)].
Kh. onDor(BD)
  ~ o~Dor(A) `to hear'.
Ju. OG-(KMP) `to hear, to listen'.
Sa. aJjOm `to hear, to listen'.
Mu. ayOm
  ~ ayum `to hear, listen'.
Ho aium `to hear, to listen'.
Bh. ayum `to hear, to listen'.
Kw. ajom
  ~ ayum `to hear, to listen'.
KW ayOm
  ~ ayO`m
Ku. aJjom
  ~ aJjum `to hear, to listen'.
  ~ aJjoen `heard'.
|Assuming a development * ayOm - * ajOm - aJjOm in Santali, the last step due to the m (RDM). Alternatively, * ayOm - * a~y~O~m - * aJOm - aJjOm, or the like (cf. RDM M106).
|Nic. ya:G, Nic.Car hAG, Nic.Coast ha:G, Lawa hmO:G, ~ mO:G.  @Beitr.

Sa. aka `to hang'.
Mu. haka `to hang'.
KW haka
|One of a few cases where Santali drops initial h; see Munda M154.

``^they two, 3rd_person dual'':
Sa. akin `they two, 3rd_person dual'.
Mu. akin
  ~ akiG `they two, 3rd_person dual'.
KW akin
  ~ akiG

Gu. al-(2)
Re. al-(2)
GR al-(2)
Gt. a~-(M)
So. al-(LD) `to thatch'.

``^wander, stroll'':
Gu. al-(2) `to wander, to stroll'.
GR al-(2)
Gt. ol@G-(M), ul@G-(M) `to wander, to walk'.
  ~ wa'-(M) `to dance, to thresh by crushing under the feet'.
So. `to thresh, to trample'.
  ~ alen-(B) `to thresh'.

So. la'aG,, A-laG/ laG(M) `tongue'.
Go. laG
  ~ la:ku(V) `tongue'.
Gu. la'G(Z) `tongue'.
Re. leaG(BF)
  ~ le'aG(B) `tongue'.
Gt. nlia/ lia(C) `tongue'.
Kh. laG(ABD) `tongue'.
Ju. aclaG(M)
  ~ ailaG(K)
  ~ elaG(KP) `tongue'.
Sa. alaG `tongue'.
Ma. alOG `tongue'.
Mu. alaG `tongue'.
Ho alaG `tongue'.
Bh. alaG `tongue'.
Dh. alaG `tongue'.
Kw. alaG `tongue'.
KW alaG
Ku. laG `tongue'.
Na. laG `tongue'.

Gu. bilaGgu `we'.
Kh. anaG `we two (inclusive)'.
Sa. alaG `we two (inclusive)'.
Ma. alaG `we two (inclusive)'.
Mu. alaG `we two (inclusive)'.
Bh. alaG `we two (inclusive)'.
As. alaG `we two (inclusive)'.
Ku. alaG `we two (inclusive)'.

So. AnlEn/ lEn `we, our, us'.
Go. bileG `we'.  !Accus. en-len
  ~ -le:(V) `we'.
Gu. -le: `we'.
Re. nay(BF)
  ~ ney(B)
  ~ nei(B)
  ~ ne(B) `we (1st_person_plural)'.
Gt. ne(C) `we plural'.
  ~ a-n@(M) `us'.
Kh. ele/ le `we (exclusive)'.
Ju. nei(K)
  ~ nii(K) `we'.
  ~ niJje `we'.
  ~ -niniJ(P)
  ~ -neniJ(P) `us, our'.  ??cog?				
Sa. alE `we (pl. exclusive)'.
  ~ alEn `??'.  !Bodd. Mat II, p52, 59a
Ma. alE `we (exclusive)'.
Mu. ale `we (pl. exclusive)'.
Ho ale `we (exclusive)'.
Bj. ale `we (exclusive)'.
Bh. ale `we (exclusive)'.
As. ale `we (exclusive)'.
Kw. ale `we (exclusive)'.
KW a-lE
Ku. ale/ le `we (exclusive)'.

``^we'':  ??##join/split prev.
Gu. ne:iG `we'.
Kh. aniG `we (inclusive)'.
Ju. niJje `we'.
Sa. AliJ `we two (exclusive)'.
Ma. aliJ `we two (exclusive)'.
Mu. aliG
  ~ aliJ `we two (exclusive)'.
Ho aliG `we two (exclusive)'.
Bh. aliG `we two (exclusive)'.
As. aliG `we two (exclusive)'.
KW aliJ
  ~ aliG
Ku. aliG `we two (exclusive)'.

Sa. alO `no'.
Mu. alO `no'.
KW alO

So. amAn/ Am, nAm(M) `thou, thee, thy'.
  ~ amben/ ben `you (pl.), your'.  |* ape with contam. by am.
   ~ enom(Z) `thee, you singular (object), to you'.  |  en=nom.
Gu. nom(Z) `thou'.
Re. no(B) `thou, you (2nd person singular)'.
Gt. na(C) `you (sg)'.
Kh. am(B) `thou'.
  ~ ambar(B) `you (dual)'.  | am + bar `two'.
  ~ ampe(B) `you (plural)'.  |* ape contam. by am.
  ~ -m(B)
  ~ -nom(BD) `thy, your, 2nd_person singular possessive'.
Ju. am(KMP) `thou, you (sg.)'.
  ~ me-(P) `thou, you'.
Sa. am `thou'.
Ma. am `thou'.
Mu. am `thou'.
Ho am `thou'.
Bj. am `thou'.
Bh. am `thou'.
Dh. am `thou'.
As. am `thou'.
Kw. am `thou'.
KW am
Ku. am `thou'.

``^clear forest, get well'':
Sa. amiJ `to clear a forest, to get well'.
Mu. amiJ
  ~ amiG `to clear a forest, to get well'.
KW amiJ
  ~ amiG

Sa. anda? `to fry'.
Mu. anda? `to fry'.
KW anda?

Go. Da'r `to hear'.
Kh. ONDOr `to hear'.
Sa. aNDar oNDor `staring vacantly, with wide open eyes, look about, stare with wide open eyes, gape about'.
  ~ andoR `noise, uproar, tumult'.
Mu. andO:R
  ~ andORO `noise, uproar, shouting'.

Sa. aO `at random'.
Mu. aO~ `at random'.
@(M093, M105)

So. appej(M) `father'.  !Rayagada dialect
Gu. apaG
  ~ apoG `father'.
Kh. apa `father'.
Sa. apa
  ~ Apu `father'.
Ma. apa `father'.
Mu. apu `father'.
Ho apu `father'.
Bh. apa `father'.
Dh. apa `father'.
Kw. apa
  ~ apu `father'.
KW apu
So. ua'a, ua(M) `father'.  ! uaG `father, vocative'.
Gu. abba `father'.
Re. ba `father'.  !(Elwin)
Kh. aba `father'.
Ju. aba `father'.
Sa. aba(M)
  ~ ba `father'.
Mu. aba `father'.
KW aba
Ku. aba
  ~ ba-te `father'.
Na. a:ba: `father'.
|Cf. Tel. abba `father'.  ??cite DED.

So. amben `you'.  |Prob. * am-pe-n - amben, whence the shortened forms; for the compound cf. Kharia (DS).
  ~ ben `your'.
  ~ -be `2 inclusive subject verb suffix'.
Go. babin(Z)
  ~ babiG(Z)
  ~ mamin(Z)
  ~ mamiG(Z)
  ~ maiG(Z) `you (plural)'.
  ~ bo-(Z) `you (plural, subject)'.
  ~ -be(Z) `you'.
  ~ en=beG(Z) `you plural (object), to you'.
Gu. pen(Z) `you (plural)'.
  ~ pen--nen(Z) `you (plural)'.  ??how diff. from prev.
Re. pe(B)
  ~ pen(P) `you plural'.
Gt. pe(C) `you plural'.
  ~ pem-baea(C) `you two'.			 
  ~ a-pe(M) `to you (plural)'.
Kh. ampe(B)/ pe(B) `you (plural)'.  |* ape contam. by am
Ju. ape-re(P) `you'.
Sa. ape
  ~ apE `you'.
Ma. apE `you'.
Mu. ape `you'.
Ho ape `you'.
Bh. ape `you'.
Dh. ape `you'.
As. ape `you'.
Kw. ape `you'.
KW a-pE
Ku. ape/ pe `you'.
@(V053,V175a,M082, cf. V055,V175)

Kh. pEnEr `wing of a bird'.
Sa. Apir `slanting, let fly, fly off, escape, look aslant'.
Mu. apir `to fly'.
  ~ aprO'b
  ~ apArO'b
  ~ apAra'b `wings'.
Ho apir `to fly'.
Bh. apir `to fly'.
Ku. apir `to fly'.
Na. aphir `to fly'.
KW apir

``^collect, ^gather (grain)'':
Gu. ar-(2) `to bring in grain from the fields, to pile up in sheaves'.
  ~ `harvesting'.
GR ar-(2)
So. ar-ram- `to collect, to gather'.  ( lam\ Alam(L) `hay, fodder' with r-l regularly rr)

``^burn out'':
Re. ar-(2) `to burn out'.  !cognate with Gu ar-(2) ?
GR ar-(2)
So. arARE-toD(Z) `live coals'.  [?prob. rather to arARi(L) `coarse flour'; -tod\ tO'Oge `fire'].

``^scrape, ^shave'':
Gu. ar-(2)
Re. ar-(2,&) `to shave'.
GR ar(2)
So. ar-(?) `to scrape' in ar-raG- (  ar-laG-) `to scrape the tongue' etc.

``^red, bright'':
Sa. ara? `red, bright'.
Mu. ara? `red, bright'.
KW ara?

``^let go'':
Sa. aRa? `to let go'.
Mu. aRa? `to let go'.
KW aRa?

``^vegetables, ^potherbs'':
Sa. aRa? `vegetables, potherbs'.
  ~ siJ aRa? `a certain tree (%Bauhinia_variegata)'.
Mu. aRa? `vegetables, potherbs'.
Bh. aRa? `vegetables, potherbs'.
KW aRa?

So. rAyam(R)
  ~ rayam `son-in-law'.
Gu. ariyo `son-in-law'.
Re. arju `son-in-law'.
Kh. aram `son-in-law'.  !Ban. ara'm
Mu. ara `son-in-law'.
Ho ara `son-in-law'.

``^make noise'':
Sa. aRaG `to make noise'.
Mu. aRaG `to make noise'.

Sa. are
  ~ arE `nine'.
Ma. arE `nine'.
Mu. arE
  ~ area
  ~ aria `nine'.
Ho area `nine'.
Bh. arE `nine'.
Ku. are `nine'.
  ~ areya `nine'.  !subst
Mw. areiku `nine'.
KW arE

So. arEl/ rEl(DS) `hailstone, to hail'.
  ~ arEl-g+m `a hailstorm'.
Go. are:l `hailstone'.
  ~ arel de:ya: `hailstorm'.
Gu. bire:l
  ~ bre:l `hailstone'.
Kh. arEl `hail (weather)'.
Sa. arel `hail, to hail'.  ??or arEl
Mu. aril `hail (weather)'.
Ho haril `hail (weather)'.
Bh. aril `hail (weather)'.
KW ari`l M139.  ! arE`l M095.

``^open eyes'':
Sa. arid `to open one's eyes'.
Mu. arid `to open one's eyes'.
KW arid

Sa. arsal `light; to be light'.
Mu. arsal `light; to be light'.
KW arsal
|Cf. marsal `id.'.

So. Asaj/ saj `charcoal'.
Gu. isai `charcoal'.
Kh. gasa'j `charcoal'.
Sa. asa~e `the ova of the green fly'.  !i.e. Sa. asay~
Mu. asai `eggs of flies'.

Sa. asaE `gadfly'.
Mu. asai `gadfly'.
KW asaE`

``^cease breathing'':
Sa. asid `to cease breathing'.
Mu. asid `to cease breathing'.
KW asid

Sa. askal `light; to be light'.
Mu. askal `light; to be light'.
KW askal

``^stop raining'':
Sa. asOR `to stop raining'.
Mu. hasuR
  ~ asuR `to stop raining'.
KW hasO`R
|One of a few forms in which Santali drops initial h.  Or is it more plausible to reconstruct such forms without the h and derive them from the V` in the following syllable ( a could be reconstructed as a`)?  But a general rule is not apparent (RDM).

Sa. asul `to support'.
Mu. asul `to support'.
KW asul

Sa. ata `to parch'.
Mu. ata `to parch'.
KW ata

Sa. ataG `to receive'.
Mu. ataG `to receive'.
KW ataG

Sa. aTal `layer'.
Mu. aTal `layer'.
KW aTal

Sa. atar `to burn'.
Mu. atar `to burn'.
KW atar

Sa. atE
  ~ atEn `to listen'.
Mu. atE
  ~ atEn `to listen'.
KW atE
  ~ atEn

Sa. aTEd `to spread (e.g., a mat)'.
Mu. aTEd `to spread (e.g., a mat)'.
@(M104, M127)

Kh. araJ `to graze'.
Sa. AtiJ `to graze, feed, spread, gather'.
Mu. atiJ
  ~ atiG `to graze'.
Ho atiJ `to graze'.
Bh. atiG `to graze'.
KW atiJ
  ~ atiG

Sa. aTkar `to feel'.
Mu. aTkar `to feel'.
KW aTkar

``^creeper sp.'':
Sa. aTkir `kind of creeper'.
Mu. aTkir `kind of creeper'.
KW aTkir

``^take away'':
Sa. atkir `to take away'.
Mu. arkid `to take away'.
KW arkid
|With metathesis of r and d in Santali, i.e. * arkid - * adkir - atkir; reconstruction with r also reflects a possible analysis * a[r]kid, cf. akid to scoop (RDM).

Sa. atO `village, hamlet'.
Mu. hatu
  ~ atu `village, hamlet'.
Ho hatu `village, hamlet'.
Bj. hathu `village, hamlet'.
As. vatu `village, hamlet'.
Kw. vatu `village, hamlet'.
KW hatO`
|One of a few forms in which Santali drops initial h.

Sa. atOm `side'.
Mu. atOm `side'.
KW atOm

Kh. tuDa? `to float'.  !compounded with Da? `water'.
Sa. Atu `to flow, float'.
Mu. atu `to flow, float'.
Ho atu `to flow, float'.
Bh. atu `to be carried away (as by waves)'.
KW atu
Ku. tu `to wash away as a flood, to float'.
|Analyzed a-tu (RDM).

Sa. atur `to winnow'.
Mu. atur `to winnow'.
KW atur

``^not yet'':
Sa. auri `not yet'.
Mu. auri `not yet'.
KW auri

``^evening, ^dark'':
So. Or+b `evening, become evening, last night'.
  ~ r+b-An
  ~ r+b-mAG-tan `yesterday'.
Kh. iDi'b `night'.
Sa. Ayu'b `evening, nightfall'.
  ~ Ayu'b lumbA? a little after nightfall'.
  ~ lumpA?
  ~ lupA? `to get dark'.  ??check originals
Mu. ayu'b `evening, nightfall'.
Ho ayub `evening'.
Bh. ayub `evening'.
KW ayub
Ku. $iGgaru'b
  ~ $iGru'b
  ~ $iGrup `setting of the sun, evening'.  !cf. V286

Sa. ayur `ahead'.
Mu. ayur
  ~ ayar `ahead'.
KW ayur
  ~ ayar

Sa. a~RgO `to descend'.
Mu. haRgu
  ~ aRgu `to descend'.  !variant wo h `cited M105'.
KW haRgO`
|One of a few forms in which Santali drops initial h(.) `The nasalization of V1 in Santali is unexplained (RDM); elsewhere we have Sa. a~Rg : Mu. aRg `before final m, but this suggests that ~R might derive from N rather than from a nasally assimilated R (DS).''.

Sa. a~RgOm `to level; a level'.
Mu. aRgOm `to level; a level'.
KW aRgOm
|Cf. the nasalization in Sa. sa~RgOm : Mu. saRgOm (DS).

Kh. a'j `to sprinkle'.
Sa. A~R~i~'j `to pour out, drain out, plunder'.
Mu. aNij `to pour'.
KW aNij
|Cf. `bail_out'.

Sa. arE'j `to bail out water'.
Mu. arE'j `to bail out water'.
KW arEj
|Cf. `pour'.

Sa. ba? `to hook'.
Mu. ba? `to hook'.
KW ba?

So. `cooked rice'.  !occurs only in children's speech
Kh. ba? `rice in the hull, paddy'.
Ju. bua `rice'.  !perhaps from
Mu. `the rice-plant, paddy (%Oryza_sativa,_Linn.), or rice in the husk'.
Ho `the rice-plant, paddy (%Oryza_sativa,_Linn.), or rice in the husk'.
Ku. `cauli rice'.

Kh. um
  ~ Om `not'.
Sa. ba `not'.
  ~ baG `no'.
Kr. ba `not'.
Ma. ba `not'.
  ~ baG `no'.
Mu. baG `nothing'.
  ~ baGgaia `does not exist'.
  ~ banO? `not to exist'.
Kw. bai `no'.
KW baG
Ku. baG `no'.
Na. be:ko `no'.

Sa. babat `to itch'.
Mu. babta `to itch'.
KW babata
|Apocope in Santali, cf. Munda M146 (RDM); syncope in pre-Mundari.

Sa. backOm `kind of grass'.
Mu. badcOm
  ~ ba'cOm `kind of grass'.
KW badcOm
|Perhaps * badcOm - ba'cOm - * bakcOm - backOm (RDM).

Sa. bagi
  ~ bagE `to leave'.
Mu. bagi
  ~ bagE `to leave'.
KW bagi
  ~ bagE

So. tarba/ tar(M) `flower'.  ??also ba'a to blossom?
Go. tarba(RR) `flower'.
Sa. baha `flower, blossom, to flower'.
Mu. tarai-ba(A) `a kind of marsh-flower'.
  ~ baa(H)
  ~ baha(N) `flower, blossom, to flower'.
Ho ba `flower, blossom, to flower'.
Bh. baha `flower, blossom, to flower'.
KW baha
|Cf. So. ba'a `to blossom'.

Sa. bai `to make'.
Mu. bai `to make'.
KW bai

Sa. baku?
  ~ bakub `to hook; a hook'.
Mu. baku? `to hook; a hook'.
KW baku?
  ~ bakub
|One of two ? : b correspondences (RDM); cf. also `nod'.

Sa. bal.bal `sweat'.
Mu. bal.bal `sweat'.
KW bal.bal

``^bore a hole'':
Sa. bal `to bore a hole'.
Mu. bal `to bore a hole'.
KW bal

``^mad, insane'':
Sa. balO `mad, insane; to be mad'.
Mu. balu `mad, insane; to be mad'.
KW balO`

So. kAmbuD/ buD `bear'.
Gu. gub-bo:n `bear'.
Kh. bOnOi `bear'.
Sa. bana `the Indian black bear (%Ursus_labiatus)'.
Mu. bana `the Sloth-bear, the black bear (%Melursus_ursinus)'.
  ~ buRi `the black bear'.
Ho bana `bear'.
Bh. bana `bear'.
  ~ buria `the black bear'.
KW bana
Ku. bana `bear'.

Sa. banam `fiddle'.
Mu. banam `fiddle'.
KW banam

``^creeper sp.'':
Sa. bandO `kind of creeper'.
Mu. bandu `kind of creeper'.
KW bandO`

So. bagu `two'.
So. bar- `two'.  E.g. bar-n+m `two years'.
Go. ba:gu `two'.
Gu. ma:ro
  ~ umba:ro
  ~ ba:r-ju:(B) `two'.
Re. 'mba:r `two'.
Kh. ubar `two'.
Ju. ban
  ~ ambar `two'.
Sa. bar
  ~ bar-ea `two'.
Ma. bar
  ~ bar-ea `two'.
Mu. bar
  ~ bar-ia `two'.
Ho bar
  ~ bar-ia `two'.
Bj. baria `two'.
Bh. bar
  ~ bar-ea `two'.
Dh. bar
  ~ bar-ea `two'.
As. baria `two'.
Kw. bari
  ~ bari-TaG `two'.
KW bar
Ku. bari
  ~ baria
  ~ bariya `two'.

Sa. -baRE `indeed'.
Mu. -baRE `indeed'.

Sa. barE `brother'.
Mu. barE `brother'.
KW barE

``^tree sp.'':
Sa. baru `kind of tree'.
Mu. baru `kind of tree'.
KW baru

Sa. basaG `to boil'.
Mu. basaG `to boil'.
KW basaG

So. arta `a rope, or thong with which the yoke is tied to the plough'.  !Ram., ?
Gu. varti: `ring'.  !?
Sa. babEr `rope'.
Mu. bahEr(M) `rope'.
  ~ bayar(P) `rope'.
As. ba:ver `rope'.
KW bahEr
  ~ babEr

So. bAleD/ beD `feathers of rooster or of peacock's tail'.
  ~ bAleG `feather or plume of peacock'.
Sa. bE'd `to cover, tie up'.
  ~ bEnE'd `covering, stopper, cork, lid'.
Mu. bE'd `turban, to tie on the head'.
  ~ bEnE'd `head-dress, turban'.
KW bEd

``^spit, ^saliva, ^vomit'':
So. bAj `to vomit'.  !Ram. has baj
  ~ bij `to spit'.
  ~ bijOl `to spit, saliva'.
Go. bi'itur `saliva'.
Kh. bitthuG `to spit, saliva'.
Sa. bE'j `to vomit'.
Mu. bE'j `spittle, to spit'.
Ho be `to spit'.
Bh. bej `to spit'.  !i.e. bE'j(HJP)
KW bEj
Ku. bej `to spit'.

Sa. bEDa `low land'.
Mu. bEDa `low land'.

``^small, tiny'':
Sa. bEdrEj `tiny, small'.
Mu. bEdrEj `tiny, small'.
KW bEdrEj

Sa. bEJja? `rheum'.  !cited as bEJjad M119.
Mu. hEJja? `rheum'.
KW bEJja?
  ~ hEJja?
|This b : h correspondence is unique (RDM).

So. bel `to spread, to make a bed'.
  ~ bel-kab/ bel `bedspread'.
Kh. bEl `to spread'.  !sich ausbreiten
Sa. bel `to spread a mat'.
Mu. bil `to spread a mat'.
KW bi`l
Ku. bindil `to spread a mat'.

So. baro(R) `to become mature (as a fruit)'.  !Not cited in V232??
Gu. bullo `ripe'.
Kh. bElOG
  ~ bElOm `ripe, to ripen'.
Sa. bele `ripe fruit, ripe, to ripen; egg, testicle'.
Mu. bili `to ripen; testicle'.
Bh. bili `ripe, to ripen'.
KW bi`li`
Ku. bili `to ripen'.

``^tie cloth on; turban'':
Sa. bentar `to tie a cloth on; turban'.
Mu. bENTa `to tie a cloth on; turban'.
KW bEntar
|The pre-Mundari form seems to have dropped final r and developed retroflexion secondarily (RDM M120).

``^raw, ^green, ^alive, ^live, ^dwell'':
Gu. broluka: `raw'.
  ~ bur-lagu(K) `was revived'.
Kh. bOrOl `raw; to live'.
Ju. bara-na `lived'.
Sa. bErEl `fresh, raw, green, unripe, uncooked; to dwell, settle'.
Mu. bErEl `fresh, raw, green, unripe, uncooked; to settle down and live'.
Ho berel `fresh, raw, green, unripe, uncooked'.
Bh. beler `fresh, raw, green, unripe, uncooked'.
KW bErEl
Ku. biler `to come to life'.

``^bird sp.'':
Sa. bEsra `kind of bird'.
Mu. bEsra `kind of bird'.
KW bEsra

So. bob(R)
  ~ bab.baob-gam-le(R) `to bark'.
Kh. bhabhru
  ~ bhaBru `to bark'.
Sa. bho? `to bark'.
Mu. bhu?
  ~ bu? `to bark'.
Bh. bhu? `the bark or howl of a dog'.
KW bhu`?
  ~ bu`?
Ku. bu `to bark'.  ! bug-e:

Sa. bhu? `hole'.
Mu. bu? `hole'.
KW bhu?
  ~ bu?

``^draw water'':
Sa. bhura? `to draw water'.
Mu. bura? `to draw water'.
KW bhura?
  ~ bura?

``^get up'':
Kh. bErO'D `to stand up, get up, rise'.
  ~ bi'D `insert, fix, plant'.
Sa. bere'd `to put on end, raise, erect'.  ??also birid(M) `to get up'.
  ~ bi'd `insert, fix, plant'.
Mu. biri'd `to rise, get up'.
Bh. biri'd `to rise, get up'.
KW birid
  ~ bi`ri`d
Ku. bi'd `to rise, get up'.
@(V231,M057; cf. V285)

``^sow, ^plant'':
So. b+D `to sow'.
Kh. bi'D `to sow'.  !also to insert, fix, plant (V285)
Sa. bi'd `to insert, plant'.
Mu. bi'd `to plant in the ground'.
Ho bid `to plant in the ground'.
Bh. bid `to plant in the ground'.
KW bid

``^satisfied, to be'':
So. be'e `to be satisfied, get filled'.
Kh. bi'b `to pour out water'.  !cog??
Sa. bi `to satiate, satisfy, be satisfied'.
Mu. bi:? `to be satisfied, be filled'.  ! bi(M) `to satiate'
Ho bi `to be satisfied'.
Bh. bi `to be satisfied'.
KW bi
Ku. bi `to be satisfied'.
|SB G 75; MKhmV 94, no. 187.

Sa. bihur `to turn'.
Mu. bihur `to turn'.
KW bihur

Kh. Dimbu `%Cucumis'.  !Roy 86
Sa. biJ Dimbu `%Cucumis_trigonis,_Roxb.'.
Sa. Dimbu `certain creepers'.
Sa. Dub DubiA `full, swollen, tight, stuffed'.
Sa. Dum `to be pregnant'.
Sa. Dumke `roundish, oblong oval'.
Mu. Dimbu `%Cucumis_trigonis,_Roxb.,_Cucurbitaceae, e.g. biG Dimbu'.

``^snake'':  ??##
So. ja'aD/ jAD `snake'.
So. laG-biG-buD(R)
  ~ laG-biJ-bud `blind worm'.
Kh. buGgOm
  ~ buGgam
  ~ bubaG `snake'.  !Joh. 3,14 buvaG
Kh. jamRo `unhooded (serpent)'.
Ju. bubuG `snake, serpent'.
Sa. biJ `snake, serpent'.
Sa. jambRo
  ~ jamRo `the Dhaman or rat snake, non-poisonous'.
Mu. biG
  ~ biJ `snake, serpent'.
  ~ jambARu-biG `the rat-snake (%Ptyas_mucosus, Sad. dhaman)'.
Ho biG `snake, serpent'.
Bj. biG `snake, serpent'.
Bh. biG `snake, serpent'.
KW biJ
  ~ biG
Ku. biG
  ~ biJ `snake, serpent'.

Kh. bEndi `spider'.  !mistransl. by Banerjee as lizard
Sa. bindi `spider'.
Mu. bindi
  ~ bindAramP
  ~ bindiram(M) `spider'.
KW bindi

So. bAru/ b+r `hill'.
Gu. byroG `jungle'.  !sic.
Kh. biru `mountain'.
Sa. bir `forest, jungle'.
Mu. bir `forest, jungle'.
Ho bir `forest, jungle'.
Bh. bir `forest, jungle'.
KW bir
|For V321, V321A, HJP posits * wir or * w+ri, prefixed with * k- or * d-, whence the various initials, or suffixed (e.g. So. kAnreG) or infixed (e.g. Kh kinir); he separates So. bAru and Gu. byroG with Kh. biru hill (V278); EsA 121; SB F 234; MKhmV 94, no. 205; Kuhn 207, 208.

So. bOGtEl/ bOG `buffalo'.
Go. boGtel `buffalo'.
  ~ ki-boG `a buffalo cow'.
Gu. boGtel `buffalo'.
Re. boGte:l `buffalo'.
Kh. boGtEl `buffalo'.
Sa. bitkil `a buffalo cow'.
Ho bitkil `a buffalo cow'.
Ku. bitkil
  ~ batkil `a buffalo cow'.

``^show one's posterior'':
Sa. bituj `to show one's posterior'.
Mu. bituj `to show one's posterior'.
KW bituj

So. guyor(R)
  ~ gUyUr `to whirl'.
  ~ piur-ai(R) `to turn around'.
  ~ piy-yur(R) `to turn, to whirl, to dance in a circle'.
Mu. biur `to turn around, to surround, to move round, around'.
Mu. ulTa `to turn over things which are not flat'.  ??X

``^huge, ^big'':
Sa. bOa? `huge, big'.
Mu. bOa? `huge, big'.
KW bOa?

Sa. bOda `he-goat'.
Mu. bOda `he-goat'.
KW bOda

Sa. bODOj `to squeeze'.
Mu. bODOj `to squeeze'.

So. boj `a feminine suffix, e.g. sora-boj Sora woman'.  !occurs in Sora deity names, e.g. UyUG-boj `sun deity' (Ram).
Kh. bui `girl'.
Sa. boe
  ~ boi `girl (used in address)'.
Mu. bui `voc. of address to little girls'.

Sa. bOEha `brother'.
Mu. bOEha `brother'.
KW bOEha

So. boge `big, stout, fat, healthy'.
Sa. boge `good, well, to do good, to do well'.  !get well (M)
Mu. bugi `to do good, cure'.  !get well (M)
  ~ bugin `good, well'.
Ho bugi `to do good, cure'.
  ~ bugin `good, well'.
Bj. bugi `to do good, cure'.
  ~ bugin `good, well'.
Bh. bugi
  ~ bugin `good'.
Dh. boge `good'.
KW bu`gi`

So. bAROG `hill'.  !Rayagada dialect; Ram. has also forest, class of Sora deities, with CF bOG
  ~ bOG-DOr `the name of a hill'.
  ~ siG-bOG(R) `the name of a Sora deity'.
Sa. boGga `a spirit, godling, demon'.
Ma. bOGga `spirit, devil'.
Mu. bOGga `spirit'.
Ho bOGga `spirit, devil'.
Bh. bOGga `spirit, devil'.
Dh. bOGga `spirit, devil'.
KW bOGga

So. bO'Ob/ bAb `head, chief'.
Go. ba:b
  ~ bap?(B)
  ~ bha:(V) `head, top, end'.
Gu. bok
  ~ mbo:p
  ~ bo:(B) `head, top, end'.
Re. bo'b `head, top, end'.
Kh. bOkO'b/ bO? `head'.  E.g. jur-bO? `to shake one's head'.
Ju. boko?(R)
  ~ boko(LSI)
  ~ bokob(Da) `head'.
Sa. bOhO? `head'.
Ma. bOhO? `head'.
Mu. bOhO?(N)
  ~ bOO?(H) `head'.
Ho bo `head'.  !i.e. bo? `head'.
Bj. buho `head'.  !Hunter
Bh. bOhO? `head'.
Dh. bOhO? `head'.
Kw. bhu `head'.
KW bOhO?
|So. bO'Ob/ bAb, Kh. bOkOb/ bO?.

``^slip off'':
Sa. bOj `to slip off'.
Mu. bOj `to slip off'.
KW bOj

Kh. bOkEr `brother-in-law'.
  ~ bOksEl `sister-in-law'.
Ju. boko `younger brother'.
Sa. bOkO `younger brother or sister'.
Ma. bOkO `younger brother or sister'.
Mu. bOkO `younger brother or sister'.
Bh. bOkO `younger brother or sister'.
Kw. boho `younger brother'.
Ku. boko `younger brother'.

Sa. bOlO `to enter'.
Mu. bOlO `to enter'.
Ho bOlO `to enter'.
Bh. bOlO `to enter'.

Sa. bOr `to take out (thread)'.
Mu. bOr `to take out (thread)'.
KW bOr

So. bAtOG `fear, to fear'.
  ~ bA[b]tOG `to frighten'.
Go. butoG `to fear'.
  ~ bo[b]toG-ai `to frighten'.
Gu. butoG `to fear'.
Re. butuG `fear'.
Kh. bOtOG `to fear, be afraid, fear'.
Sa. bOr `fear, dread'.
  ~ bOrO `to fear, to take fright'.
  ~ bOtOr `fear, danger'.
Mu. bOtOG `to frighten'.
  ~ bOrO
  ~ bOrOm
  ~ bharam
  ~ bhOrOm `timidity, fear'.
Ho boro `to fear'.
Bh. boro `fear'.
  ~ botor `to frighten'.

Sa. bORa `blunt'.  !also bORO (M120)
Mu. bORa `blunt'.

Sa. bOrOR `slippery'.
Mu. bOrOR `slippery'.

Sa. bOtOj `loincloth'.
Mu. bOtOj `loincloth'.
KW bOtOj

Sa. buhEl `to float'.
Mu. buhal `to float'.
KW buha`l

So. puDi(R)/ pul `navel, navel cord'.
Sa. bukA `navel, top of an Indian corn cob where no corns are'.
Mu. buTi `navel, navel cord'.
Ho buTi `navel, navel cord'.
Bh. buka `navel'.
Ku. bumli `navel'.
Na. bumli `navel'.

``^get drunk'':
Kh. bul `to get or be drunk'.
Sa. bul `to be drunk, intoxicated'.
Mu. bul `to be drunk, intoxicated'.
Bh. bul `to be drunk, intoxicated'.
KW bul
Ku. bul `to be drunk, intoxicated'.

So. bulu/ bul `thigh'.
Go. bulu `thigh'.
Gu. billi `thigh'.
Re. billi
  ~ bulli `thigh'.
Kh. bhulu `thigh'.
Sa. bulu `thigh'.
Mu. bulu `thigh'.
Ho bulu `thigh'.
Bh. bulu `thigh'.
Kw. bulu `thigh'.
KW bulu
Ku. bulu `thigh'.

Kh. biluG `salt'.
Ju. buluG `salt'.
Sa. buluG `salt'.
Mu. buluG `salt'.
Ho buluG `salt'.
Bj. buluG `salt'.
Bh. buluG `salt'.
Kw. buluG `salt'.
KW buluG
Ku. buluG `salt'.

So. bAn+m/ b+m `ant-hill, white-ant hill'.
Kh. bhuNDu
  ~ bhu~R~u `ant-hill'.
Sa. bunum `white-ant hill'.
Mu. bunum
  ~ bhu~R~u `white-ant hill'.
Ho bunum `white-ant hill'.
Bh. bunuG `ant-hill'.

So. bAru/ b+r `hill, hill cleared for cultivation'.
Gu. biro
  ~ buroG `hill, mountain'.
Kh. biru `hill'.
Sa. buru `hill, mountain'.
Mu. buru `hill, mountain'.
Ho buru `hill, mountain'.
Bj. buru `hill, mountain'.
Bh. buru `hill, mountain'.
KW buru

Sa. buRuj `slippery'.
Mu. buRuj `slippery'.
KW buRuj

Sa. burum `to lie down'.
Mu. burum `to lie down'.
KW burum

Sa. busa?
  ~ busaR `to burst'.
Mu. busa?
  ~ busaR `to burst'.
KW busa?
  ~ busaR

Sa. busu'b `straw'.
Mu. busu? `straw'.
Bh. busu? `straw'.

Sa. buTa `root'.
Mu. buTa, guTa `root'.
KW buTa
  ~ guTa

Kh. `torn'.
  ~ cagaR `to be lacerated'.  !C074
Sa. `to strip, tear off'.
  ~ caga'd
  ~ cagaR `to break off, tear off'.  !C074
  ~ `torn, tear, to rend'.
  ~ cagaR(N)
  ~ cagARa(N)
  ~ caGgaR(H)
  ~ caGgARa(H) `a rent, a tear in cloth, to tear a cloth'.  !C074
KW cEca?
|Cf. kEca?(?)

Sa. caba `to finish'.
Mu. caba `to finish'.
KW caba

Sa. cacki `to cheat'.
Mu. cacki `to cheat'.
KW cacki

Sa. cacO `to walk (children)'.
Mu. cacu `to walk (children)'.
KW cacO`

Sa. caDO `to drown'.
Mu. caDu `to drown'.
KW caDO`

Kh. caRra `to be bald-headed, baldness'.
  ~ catra `to clear the jungle'.
Sa. caDra `bald, bare'.
  ~ cEDgE `bare'.
Mu. ca'dra(H)
  ~ caRra(H)
  ~ caRe(H)
  ~ cERE?(H)
  ~ caDra(N) `bald, bald-headed'.
Ho cere `bald, bald-headedness'.

Sa. cagaR `to break'.
Mu. caGgaR `to break'.
KW cagaR
  ~ caGgaR

Sa. caGga `step'.
Mu. caGga `step'.
KW caGga
|Cf. Sa., Mu. caGkE` `to jump'.

Sa. caGkE `to jump'.
Mu. caGki `to jump'.
KW caGkE`
|Cf. Sa., Mu. caGga `step'.

Sa. cahab `to open one's mouth'.
Mu. cahab `to open one's mouth'.
KW cahab
|Cf. Sa., Mu. cakOb `to bite'.

Sa. cakE `heap'.
Mu. caki `heap'.
KW cakE`

Sa. cakOb `to bite'.
Mu. cakOb `to bite'.
KW cakOb
|Cf. Sa., Mu. cahab `to open one's mouth'.

Kh. cakONDa `%Arum_colacasia)'.
Mu. cakONDa
  ~ cakO~R~a~
  ~ cakONTa `(%Cassia_tora,_Linn.,_Caesalpinieae, %Cassia_obtusifolia,_Linn., an annual weed'.  !(EM)

Kh. pata `tail'.
Sa. caNDlOm(M) `tail'.
Mu. calOm(P)
  ~ ca'dlOm(MP)
  ~ ca'lOm(M) `tail'.
Ho calom `tail'.
Bh. ca~R~ bol `tail'.  !Bhat.
KW cadlOm
Ku. cu:t `tail'.
|Santali nasal apparently due to the final m, as in several examples, and D irregularly from d (RDM), though deriving Mundari d from * D by assimilation to l might provide more motive (DS).

Sa. campur `talkative'.
Mu. campur `talkative'.
KW campur

Sa. capad `to step on'.
Mu. capad `to step on'.
KW capad

``^wash, scrub'':
Sa. capE `to wash, scrub'.
Mu. capi `to wash, scrub'.
KW capE`

Kh. cEpO'D `flat'.
Kh. cOpuTa `to fold (double)'.
Sa. cApi
  ~ cApiA
  ~ cApio `flat-nosed'.
Sa. cOpO'd `low, not high, hollow, lower'.
Mu. cOpO'd `empty, to make flat'.
Mu. cEpE?(H) `flat, thin'.
Mu. cEpE'd(N) `flat, thin'.
Bh. cepTa `flat'.

So. jab `to touch'.
Kh. ji'b `to touch'.
Sa. capo `to lay the hand on, touch, tend'.
Mu. capu(M) `to touch'.
KW capO`
Ku. cabu
  ~ sabu `to touch'.

Sa. carE'j `a pin of dry hard straw, a chip, splinter, or pin (of wood)'.
Mu. cari'j `sticks used in sewing up leaves'.
Bh. cari `a reed for sewing up leaves'.
KW carE`j

``^bamboo mat'':
Kh. caRo `bamboo mat'.
Sa. caTa `a mat made from bamboo'.
Mu. caTa `to split, e.g. for bamboo to burst'.
Mu. caTka
  ~ caTAka `any bamboo matting work'.

Sa. ce'd `what'.
Mu. ci `what, an interrogative suffix'.
Ho ci `what, an interrogative suffix'.
Bh. ci `what, an interrogative suffix'.
Ku. co'j(Bodd.) `what'.

Sa. cE-ka- `interrogative'.
Mu. ci-ka- `interrogative'.
KW cE`-ka-

Sa. cEpEj
  ~ cOpOj `to suck'.
Mu. cEpEj
  ~ cOpOj `to suck'.
KW cEpEj
  ~ cOpOj

Sa. cEpEl `wave'.
Mu. cEpEl `wave'.
KW cEpEl
|Contains the reciprocal infix p (RDM).

Sa. cetan `above'.
Mu. cetan `above'.
Ho cetan `above'.
Bh. cetan `above'.
KW cEtan

``^bird, ^chirp'':
Kh. cErbErae `to chirp'.
Sa. cE~R~E~ `bird'.
  ~ cErE.cErE `to twitter, twittering'.
Ma. cE~rE~ `bird'.  !prob. cE~R~E~ (HJP)
Mu. cE~R~E~ `bird'.
  ~ cErE-bErE `to twitter, twittering'.
Bh. cE~R~E~ `bird'.

Kh. cha~R~a `to strain, filter'.
Sa. chAni `to filter, to strain out, to remain or be left behind'.
Mu. ca~R~i
  ~ ca~R~i~ `tension, distension, to stretch tightly a cloth, rope or skin'.

Sa. chEr `to melt'.
Mu. sEr `to melt'.
KW chEr
  ~ cEr
  ~ sEr
|One of two examples of ch : s (RDM).

Kh. chik-chiki kOnthED `a kind of bird'.
Mu. ci'-ci'-ORE `a very small bird so called from its call'.
  ~ ci:-ci:-ORE `a very small bird so called from its call'.

Kh. ciRRa
  ~ ciDRa `squirrel'.
Sa. ciDri'j.ciDri'j
  ~ cuDru'j.cuDru'j `the call of the striped squirrel'.

Sa. cipud
  ~ cupud `fist; to make a fist'.
Mu. cipud
  ~ cupud `fist; to make a fist'.  !only cipud M124, M129
KW cipud
  ~ cupud

Sa. cirgal `to be aware'.
Mu. cirgal `to be aware'.
KW cirgal

``^bird sp.'':
Sa. citri `partridge'.
Mu. citri `partridge'.
KW citri

Sa. cO? `to kiss; a kiss'.
Mu. cO? `to kiss; a kiss'.
KW cO?

Sa. cewa?
  ~ cEwE'j `to break off, snap off'.
  ~ cewa?
  ~ coa? `to break off, to break in two, to snap'.
Mu. cOa? `to break'.
Ho hoca `to break off, to break in two, to snap'.
KW cOa?

``^sit high, help climb up'':
Sa. cOd `to sit high, help climb up'.
Mu. cud `to sit high, help climb up'.
KW cO`d

Kh. cuGgi `pipe'.
Sa. coGga `pipe, tube'.
  ~ ThoGga `a bamboo bottle'.
Mu. cOGga `a funnel of leaves'.
  ~ cuGgi `a cigarette, a cigar'.

Sa. cOpa `kernel'.
Mu. cOpa `kernel'.
KW cOpa

Sa. cOTa? `to come off'.
Mu. cOTa? `to come off'.
KW cOTa?

``^rat sp.'':
Sa. coTo `rat'.
Mu. cuTu `rat'.
KW cu`Tu`

``^particle in the eye'':  ??mote?
Sa. cuba? `small particle in the eye; to get id.'.
Mu. cuba? `small particle in the eye; to get id.'.
KW cuba?

Sa. cubuj `to prick'.
Mu. cubuj `to prick'.
KW cubuj

Kh. cepu'D `to hide in one's fist, to clench'.
Sa. cupu'd `fist, a handful'.  !cf. sipO'd `to squeeze'.
Mu. cipu'd `a handful'.
Ho cipud `fist'.
Bh. cipud `a handful'.

Kh. cuTia `rat'.  !Or coTTo `rat'.
Sa. cuTiA `a mouse (%Mus_urbanus)'.  !Or coTTo `rat'.
Mu. cuTu `a mouse (%Mus_urbanus)'.  !Or coTTo `rat'.
Ho cuTu `a mouse (%Mus_urbanus)'.  !Or coTTo `rat'.

``^shrew, ^musk^rat'':
So. sAntuJ `shrew'.
Kh. cundi `mole'.
Sa. cu~nd `muskrat (%Sorex_caerulescens)'.
Mu. cundi `rat-tailed shrew (%Crocidura_myosura)'.
Ho cundi `muskrat'.
Bh. cundi `muskrat'.
KW cundi

So. Da'a/ Da `water'.
Go. Da'a `water'.
Gu. da `water'.
Re. da `water'.
Kh. Da?
  ~ da? `water'.
Ju. Dag `water'.  ! da, gen. dage:(Sam.)
   ~ dah(Da.)
   ~ da:(LSI)
Sa. da? water
Ma. da? `water'.
Mu. da? `water'.
Ho da? `water'.
Bj. da? `water'.
Bh. da? `water'.
Dh. da? `water'.
KW da?
Ku. da `water'.

So. DAb
  ~ r+b.r+b `to cover'.
  ~ d+b.d+b(M) `to cover, to protect'.
  ~ dAb-da(M) `to build a fence to stop running water'.
  ~ dAb.dAb(M) `to obstruct'.
Kh. Da'b `to cover (a plate)'.
Sa. da'b `to cover, to thatch'.
  ~ Dabao `to cover'.
  ~ dalO'b `to thatch closely, to cover'.
Mu. da'b
  ~ dalO'b `to cover a roof, to thatch'.
  ~ Dabao `to cover'.
Bh. dab `thatch, covering'.
KW dab

``^honey, ^tuber'':  ??##
So. Da'an/ Dan
  ~ AdAG/ dAG(M) `honey'.
Sa. da `tuber, bulb'.
Mu. daa(H)
  ~ daha(N) `bee-hive, any kind of tuber'.
Bh. da `hive'.

Kh. DObkODa? `to boil (water for cooking)'.  !Joh. 1,39
Sa. Dabkao
  ~ Dobkao `to boil, bubble over, to prepare by boiling'.
Sa. Dobka `a basket of bamboo used for lifting water'.
Sa. Dopkao
  ~ Dapkao `to cook or boil, parboil'.
Mu. Dabkao `to boil'.

Sa. DaDu
  ~ DaTu `big-headed'.
Mu. DaDu `big-headed'.

``^not'':  ??ERROR not/nod
Sa. DaDub `not'.
Mu. DaDub `not'.
KW DaDub

``^nod'':  ??ERROR not/nod
Sa. DaDub `to nod'.
Mu. DaDu?
  ~ DaDub `to nod'.
KW DaDu?
  ~ DaDub
|Cf. also `hook' for a ? : b correspondence.

So. DaGgADa(R) `to attain maturity'.
  ~ daGgAda(R)
  ~ daGgAda-mar `a young man'.
  ~ daGgAdi-boj(R) `a young woman'.
Go. dhaGRa `grown-up boy'.  !P sez daGRa?
  ~ dhaGRi `grown-up girl'.  !P sez daGRi?
Sa. DAGguA koRa `a bachelor'.
  ~ DAGguA kuRi `a spinster'.
  ~ DAGguA `barren, unfertilized, become barren'.
  ~ DAGguA `unmarried, bachelor, spinster'.
Mu. daGgRa KoRa `a young man'.
  ~ daGgRa
  ~ dhaGgRa `servant, unmarried boy, the time of youth'.
Bh. dhaGgRin `spinster'.

Sa. DAGgua `powder'.
Mu. DaGgua `powder'.
KW DaGgua

``^tree sp.: ^monkey_^jack'':
Kh. Dahu `wood-apple (%Artocarpus_Lakoocha,_Roxb.,_Urticaceae), the Monkey Jack, a large deciduous tree'.
Sa. DAhu `wood-apple (%Artocarpus_Lakoocha,_Roxb.,_Urticaceae), the Monkey Jack, a large deciduous tree'.
Mu. Dahu-daru(N)
  ~ Dau-daru(H) `wood-apple (%Artocarpus_Lakoocha,_Roxb.,_Urticaceae), the Monkey Jack, a large deciduous tree'.
KW Dahu

``cooked ^rice; ^bee_^egg'':
Sa. daka `cooked rice; bee egg'.
Mu. daha `cooked rice; bee egg'.
KW daha
|Sole example of k : h (RDM).

Sa. dal `to beat'.
Mu. dal `to beat'.
KW dal

Sa. dalOb `to cover'.
Mu. dalOb `to cover'.
KW dalOb
|Cf. So. Dal `to cover'.

Sa. daNa `to search'.
Mu. daNa `to search'.
KW daNa

Sa. danaG `to shelter'.
Mu. danaG `to shelter'.
KW danaG

Kh. dandae `to wonder, wonderful'.  !Joh. 3,7, 4,27
Sa. dand `care, anxiety, apprehension, to feel care, anxiety, to be anxious, full of care'.  !?
Sa. danda dAndi
  ~ dandha `care, anxiety, to feel care or anxiety'.  !?
Mu. akadanda `to marvel, to wonder, wonderful, amazing, to astound, to fill with wonder'.
Mu. danda `to be surprised'.
Mu. dhanda
  ~ danda `necessity, perplexity about what is to be done, a dilemma'.

``^let, permit, allow'':
Sa. -dapOR `to let, permit, allow'.
Mu. -dapuR `to let, permit, allow'.
KW dapO`R

So. kAnDara(R)/ Dara `a branch of a tree'.  ??dubious CF.
Kh. DauRa
  ~ Daura `twig'.  ! dauRa `Al. 949'.
Sa. DAr `branch of a tree'.
Mu. Dar `big branch of a tree'.
Mu. DauRa `a twig or small branch with fresh leaves on it'.

Sa. daram `to welcome'.
Mu. darOm `to welcome'.
KW darOm

``^able; strength'':
Sa. daRE `to be able; strength'.
Mu. daRi `to be able; strength'.
KW daRE`

Sa. daRhab `big-headed'.
Mu. daRhab `big-headed'.
KW daRhab

Sa. DaTOm `finger'.
Mu. DaDO `finger'.
|Irregular for T : D and for m : null (DS).

So. teDuG(R)
  ~ tIduG
  ~ tuduG `to hang'.
Sa. DawaG.DawaG `suspended, dangling'.
Sa. DawaG `to suspend, carry dangling, be suspended, hang down, dangle'.
Sa. Dhil `loose, slack'.
Sa. DhilvA `a kind of trapeze, a bent piece of wood or bamboo'.
Sa. DhilwaG `to suspend oneself holding with hands or claws (as bats), to hang oneself'.
  ~ DiAG DayaG `hanging down, to hang, dangle'.
Sa. DiAG `to hang, carry about or along, to hang oneself'.
Ho daG `to hang, to suspend'.

So. Daj `to ascend, climb, win'.
  ~ de `to awaken, to rise'.
Kh. DE'b `to climb, ride, rise'.
Sa. dE'j `to mount, ascend, climb'.
Mu. dE'j `to climb, ride'.
Bh. de? `to climb'.  !i.e. dE'j(HJP
|MKhmV) 93, no. 143.

Sa. dEa `back'.
Mu. dEa `back'.
KW dEa

So. Diya `waist, middle'.
  ~ tAraGdi `middle'.
Sa. dea `back'.
Ma. dea `back'.
Mu. dea `back'.
Mu. dOya `back'.
Bh. dea `back'.
Dh. dOya `back'.
Kw. dea~ `back'.

So. kADiG(R) `drum'.
Gu. kidiG `drum'.
Kh. DhEGgaG `drum'.
Kh. dhEJjaG `Nagera-drum'.  !P sez really Dh?
Sa. DEDgEr `a small kettle-drum'.
Sa. Dhak `drum'.
Mu. DhaG.DhaG
  ~ DaG.DaG `the sound of a large gong'.
Mu. dumaG `a particular kind of drum'.
Bh. DhaGk `drum'.

Sa. DEGga `worn-out cloth'.
Mu. DEGga `worn-out cloth'.

Sa. dEj `to climb'.
Mu. dEj `to climb'.
KW dEj

``^pointed, knotted'':
Sa. DEkE `pointed, knotted'.
Mu. DEkE `pointed, knotted'.

Sa. deko `foreigner'.
Mu. diku `foreigner'.
KW di`ku`

``^come, let's go!'':
Sa. dEla `come, let's go!'.
Mu. dEla
  ~ Ela `come, let's go!'.
KW dEla
  ~ Ela

Kh. DEl `to come'.  !infin. Kh. Dena, cf. also DhElki-KhaRia `the (earlier) arriving Kharia (a branch of Kharia)'.
Ju. -del- `to come'.
  ~ wa-De-na `come'.  !Root probably Del
  ~ De
Sa. dela `come along'.  !interj.
Mu. dela `come along'.
  ~ dola `let's go'.  !interj.

So. tenDAr `to copulate (of animals)'.
Sa. dER `to have sexual intercourse'.
Mu. dER
  ~ dERE(H) `to have sexual intercourse'.
Ho do `to have sexual intercourse with'.
Bh. deRe `to have sexual intercourse'.
  ~ dERE

``^small, ^tiny'':
Sa. DErEd `small, tiny'.
Mu. DErEd `small, tiny'.

So. DereG-buD `antennae of insects'.
So. DereG/ Der `horn, antler'.
Kh. DErEG `horn'.
Sa. dereJ `horn'.
Mu. diriG
  ~ diriJ `horn'.
Ho diriG `horn'.
Bh. diriG `horn'.
KW di`ri`J
  ~ di`ri`G

``^rock, stone'':
Sa. dhiri
  ~ dihri `rock, stone'.
Mu. diri `rock, stone'.
Ho diri `stone'.
Bj. diri `stone'.
KW dhiri
  ~ diri

Kh. DhoRha `stream'.  !in gaRha-DhoRha, ?
Kh. DhuDhri
  ~ DhuDhAri `hive, beehive'.
Sa. DhoDra `hollow, empty, to have nothing in the stomach, be emptied out'.
Mu. DhoRAro
  ~ DhORrO `a large hole'.
Mu. DhoRha `rivulet, streamlet'.  !?

``^settlement, village'':
Sa. Di `settlement, village'.
Mu. Di `settlement, village'.

``^stand ^erect, ^tiptoe'':
Kh. DiDi `erect'.
Sa. DiDA
  ~ DiDi `to stand, when beginning to learn to walk'.
Mu. DiDi `to stand on tiptoe'.
KW Dida

``^choke, get something stuck in one's throat'':
Sa. dij `to get something stuck in one's throat'.
Mu. dij `to get something stuck in one's throat'.
KW dij

Gu. dinda: vo:n `maid'.
Kh. DiNDa `virgin'.
Sa. DiNDa `bachelor'.  |M.
Mu. DiNDa `unmarried, virgin'.
Ho DiNDa `virgin'.
Bh. DiNDa `virgin'.
|Or DiNDa virgin !Prob. loanword from Munda (HJP).  Cf. PMW 80.

``^carry on head'':
Sa. dipil `to carry on one's head'.
Mu. dupil `to carry on one's head'.
KW dupil

Sa. do? `to rescue'.
Mu. du? `to rescue'.
KW du`?  !orig. du?

Sa. dO `emphatic'.
Mu. dO `emphatic'.
|Cf. a-DO `and', So. DO `and'.

So. jobba(R) `mud'.
Kh. Dobha `pool'.
Kh. Dube `to be drowned'.
Kh. tObDa? `mut'.
Sa. Dobha? `a water-pool'.
Sa. Dub.Dub `to dip, immerse'.
Sa. jubhi `marshy'.
Sa. Tup.Tup `plunging, getting under the surface'.
Mu. Doba `a pool'.
Mu. Dobe `to dip in water'.
Ho Dobe
  ~ jobe `mud'.
Ku. dubi `marsh'.

Sa. DObO? `to nod'.
Mu. DObO? `to nod'.

Sa. dOcOd `beard'.
Mu. dOcOd `beard'.
KW dOcOd

Sa. dodroso `ill, unwell, indisposed, seedy'.
Mu. duru-musu `ill, indisposed'.

Sa. DOGga `to hang'.
Mu. DuGga `to hang'.

``^be, ^sit, ^stay, ^put, ^keep'':
So. DAko `to be, stay, exist'.
  ~ dAkko `to keep'.  !causative, from * dA[b]ko
Go. dukku
  ~ duku(V), Go. Duk-ai(Bh) `be, is'.
Gu. daktu
  ~ duttu `be, is'.
Re. dukta
  ~ dutta `be, is'.
Kh. DOkO `to sit down'.
Ju. doko `sit'.
Sa. dOhO `to place, put, put down, keep, retain'.
Mu. dOhO(N)
  ~ dOO(H) `to place, to put down'.
  ~ dOi(H) `to sit (children's language)'.
Bh. dohoe `to place, to keep'.
As. doho `to hold, place, put'.
Ku. do `to hold, place, put'.

Sa. DOkOj `to swallow'.
Mu. DOkOj `to swallow'.

Sa. DOmOl `to float'.
Mu. DOmOl
  ~ DOmbOl `to float'.

``^bull with bent horns; ^fool'':
Sa. DONDO `bull with bent horns; fool'.
Mu. DONDO `bull with bent horns; fool'.

Sa. DOyOd `empty'.
Mu. DOyOd `empty'.

Kh. dORO? `many, a great number'.
Sa. dO~R~O~' dO~R~O~? `tall, huge, towering'.

Sa. du'b `to sit down'.
  ~ duRu'b `seat, settle'.
Ma. du'b
  ~ duru'b `to sit, sit down'.
Mu. du'b `to sit, sit down'.
Ho dub `to sit, sit down'.
Bj. durub `to sit, sit down'.
Bh. durub `to sit, sit down'.
Kw. duRub `to sit, sit down'.

Sa. duRub `to sit'.
Mu. duRub `to sit'.
KW duRub
| R is a no longer productive nominalizing infix (RDM).

Kh. dudmu'D `pigeon'.
Mu. dud(A)mul `the Indian Blue-rock pigeon (%Columba_livia)'.
Ho dudmul `the Indian Blue-rock pigeon (%Columba_livia)'.

``^bird sp.'':
Sa. dudmul `kind of bird'.
Mu. dudmul `kind of bird'.
KW dudmul

Kh. DuG.DuG `eel, name of a Kharia clan'.  !cf. ka-DOG `fish'.
Mu. DuG.DuG `a kind of long, very slender fish'.

Sa. dul `to pour'.
Mu. dul `to pour'.
KW dul

So. DUl
  ~ dUl.dUl `to finish, to adjust, to bite, to peck, to repay, to take vengeance'.
Kh. duluG `offence'.
Mu. dulumulu `giddiness, especially preceding an attack of bile'.

``^dunghill, garbage'':
Sa. dumhE `dunghill, garbage'.
Mu. dubi `dunghill, garbage'.
KW dubE`
  ~ dubhE`
|The Santali development was presumably later (RDM).

``^bird sp.'':
Sa. dundu `kind of bird'.
Mu. dundu `kind of bird'.
KW dundu

Sa. dundur `to be obstinate'.
Mu. dundur `to be obstinate'.
KW dundur

Sa. du~Ruj `to spill'.
Mu. duNuj `to spill'.
KW duNuj

So. e gOy `interjection, used to call a girl'.
Gu. e: `oh'.  !interjection
Kh. e: `vocative particle'.
Sa. E `vocative particle'.
Mu. e `vocative particle'.

Sa. E-a(M)
  ~ eae `seven'.
Ma. eae `seven'.
Mu. e
  ~ ea
  ~ eya
  ~ eae `seven'.
Ho aia
  ~ iya `seven'.
Bh. eae
  ~ aea
  ~ ae `seven'.
KW E-a
Ku. e
  ~ ye
  ~ eya
  ~ yeya `seven'.

``^wake up'':
Sa. EbhEn `to wake up'.
Mu. EhOn `to wake up'.
  ~ EbhOn

``^cotton, ^cottonsilk ^tree'':
So. ADi/ Di `cotton'.
Kh. sidi? `cotton pod'.
Sa. EdEl `the cotton tree (%Bombax_malabaricum,_DC)'.
Mu. EdEl
  ~ EdEl-daru `the cotton tree (%Bombax_malabaricum,_DC)'.
|Initial vowel prob. * +, second vowel unclear (HJP).

Sa. EgEr `to scold'.
Mu. EgEr `to scold'.

So. yaG(R)
  ~ iaG
  ~ yoG
  ~ ioG `mother'.
Go. aya:G `mother'.
Gu. i:oG
  ~ iyo:G `mother'.
Re. i:oG `mother'.
Sa. eGga `mother'.
Ma. eGga `mother'.
Mu. EGga `mother'.  !voc. eaG
  ~ ayaG
Ho eGga `mother'.
Bh. eGga `mother'.
Dh. eGga `mother'.
Kw. IGga `mother'.
KW EG-ga
|The first part seems to be a contracted form of eaG `mother', and the second part the honorific -ga (RDM).

Kh. EG `to return'.  !compared in C520a
Kh. u~i~ `to twist'.  !Ban. UG, pret. u~y~O?, Ridd. 230 uiGJo?, i.e. uy~
  ~ uy~O?
Sa. eGgO'd
  ~ iGgu'd `to stoop, bend forward'.  !compared in C520a
Sa. uJ `to twine, twist, plait, curl up'.
Ho u~i `to twist (into a rope)'.
Bh. uin `to twist'.  !K. uiG

Sa. Ej `to scoop up'.
Mu. Ej `to scoop up'.
|Cf. gEj `to scrape up' (RDM).

Sa. ElaG `heat'.
Mu. ElaG `heat'.

``^give'':  ??##split?
Kh. gam Oy~EG `to answer'.
Kh. O~e `to give'.  ! Oy~
Kh. O~eGgO'D
  ~ Oy~EGgO'D `to give back'.
Sa. Em `to give'.
Ma. Em `to give'.
Mu. Om(H) `to give'.
Mu. Em(N) `to give'.
Ho em `to give'.
Bj. um `to give'.
Bh. Om
  ~ Em `to give'.
Dh. Em `to give'.
As. ov `to give'.  ! ov-at
Kw. owai-mi `give-him'.
  ~ Om
Ku. i `to give'.  ! iy-e
|Cf. Ku. i,, O,, wa `to give'.  !RDM.

Sa. Eman `et cetera'.
Mu. Eman `et cetera'.
KW Eman

So. EDnE `thus, like this, to do this way'.
  ~ enne(R) `such as this'.
Kh. ena
  ~ ina `why'.
  ~ enathOm `for this reason'.
  ~ Enma? `this year'.  !i.e. En `this'.
Sa. En `that'.  !also Ena RDM
  ~ in `so, so many, then, that very'.
  ~ ini `he there, this one'.
Mu. En `that'.  !also Ena RDM
  ~ ini? `he'.
Bh. ini `he there, this one'.
  ~ En-a
Ku. ene-n `here'.
  ~ ene-tai `up to here'.
  ~ ene-ten `hence'.
  ~ ini `this'.
  ~ ini-j `this one (animate)'.
|Probably two different stems with E and i vowels (HJP).

Sa. ENDa? `to throw away'.
Mu. ENDa? `to throw away'.

Sa. Era `wife'.
Mu. Era `wife'.
KW Era

Sa. erwel `younger brother-in-law, younger sister-in-law'.
Mu. iriul
  ~ iril
  ~ ~irul `younger brother-in-law, younger sister-in-law'.
KW i`rwi`l
  ~ i`rui`l
|The second reconstruction would support an interpretation of the pre-Mundari form as due to metathesis of V2 and V3 (RDM).

Sa. EsEd `to stop'.
Mu. EsEd `to stop'.

Kh. OsEl `white'.
Sa. EsEl `fair, light-colored'.
  ~ sEl.sEl `white, fair'.
Mu. EsEl `fairness of skin, light brown skin color'.
Ho asel
  ~ esel `fairness of skin, light brown skin color'.
Ku. esel `fair'.

Sa. EsEr `to occupy'.
Mu. EsEr `to occupy'.

``^alone, lonely'':
Sa. Eskar `alone, lonely'.
Mu. Eskar `alone, lonely'.
KW Eskar

Sa. ETa? `another'.
Mu. ETa? `another'.

Sa. etaG `thin, slight, open'.
Mu. etaG `thin, slight, open'.
Ho etaG `thin, slight, open'.
KW etaG

Sa. EtE `to listen'.
Mu. EtE `to listen'.

Sa. ETEj `to begin'.
Mu. ETEj `to begin'.

``^tree sp.'':
Sa. ETkEj `kind of tree'.
Mu. ETkEj `kind of tree'.

``^right side'':
Sa. EtOm `the right side, right (opp. to left)'.
Mu. EtOm `right (dexter)'.  !Sgbh, Gangpur
Ho EtOm `right (dexter)'.

Sa. EtraG `to scold'.
Mu. EraG `to scold'.
Kw. EraG
|Perhaps t in Santali is originally the nominalizing infix (RDM).

Sa. ewer `breeze'.
Mu. iur `breeze'.
KW i`wi`r
|Assumes that Mundari dropped V2 (RDM).

Sa. ga? `to make a net'.
Mu. ga? `to make a net'.
KW ga?

Sa. gabla `to cover'.
Mu. gabla `to cover'.
KW gabla

So. joDa(R)/ jol `river'.
Kh. ga'Rha `river'.  !Roy 377
Kh. jor(H) `river'.
Sa. gaDa `a hollow, pit, excavation, trench, a river'.
Mu. gaRa(H) `a pit, a trench, a grave, a water-course, a stream, a river'.
Mu. gaDa(N) `a pit, a trench, a grave, a water-course, a stream, a river'.
Ho garra `river, stream'.
Bj. garra `river, stream'.
Bh. gaRa `river, stream'.
Ku. gada `river, stream'.

So. gaj `to fry'.
Kh. gaj `to fry'.
Mu. gaja maND `cooked rice beginning to spoil'.
  ~ gaja-guju? `to become tender by cooking'.

So. gam `to say, tell, speak'.
Kh. gam `to speak, say'.
Sa. gam `story, folk-tale, relate, tell do.'.
Mu. gamu `song, singing, to sing'.
Ho gamu `song, singing, to sing'.
Bh. gam `to speak, say'.

So. gOb(D) `to sit'.
So. kaDab(R)
  ~ kaddab `to stop, to cease, to keep quiet'.
Kh. kOrO'b `quiet, quietly'.
Sa. gam
  ~ gamgum `to sit quietly'.  !?
  ~ guRum `quiet, silent, still, calm'.  !?

So. gAnur/ g+m `rain'.  ! gAnur `prob. gur to fall with nom. infix An'.
Go. gum-a:r `rain'.
Kh. gim `to shower'.
Mu. gama `rain, to rain'.
Bh. gam `to rain'.
Ku. ghama: `to rain'.

Sa. gaNDO `seat'.
Mu. gaNdu `seat'.
KW gaNdO`

Sa. gapa `tomorrow'.
Mu. gapa `tomorrow'.
Bh. gapa `tomorrow'.
KW gapa
Ku. gapaG
  ~ gaphaG `tomorrow'.

Sa. gaREj `to slip'.
Mu. gOREj `to slip'.
KW gaREj
  ~ gOREj

Sa. gaRi `monkey'.
Mu. gaRi `monkey'.
KW gaRi

``^accompany, companion'':
Sa. gatE `to accompany; companion'.
Mu. gati `to accompany; companion'.
KW gatE`

So. iguD(R)
  ~ igul
  ~ igun `to beckon, to make gestures'.
Kh. gou'j `to beckon (with a hand)'.
Sa. gawij(M)
  ~ gAvi'j `to beckon (with a hand)'.
Mu. ga:wi'j
   ~ gawij(M) `the act or gesture of beckoning'.
Ho ga:ui `the act or gesture of beckoning'.
KW gawij

So. gaD `to cut cloth, to cut meat, to cut in half, to cut grass'.  !Ram. has gad
  ~ gar `to cut, reap, split'.
Kh. khE'D `to bite'.
  ~ DEg `to cut'.  !i.e. prob. DE'j(HJP;)
Sa. gE'd `a cut, to cut'.
Mu. gEd(M) `to cut'.  !P has Mu. ha'd `to cut with a knife'.
Bh. get
  ~ ged `to cut'.
KW gEd
Ku. ge:'d `to kill'.

``^emphatic, ^indeed, ^like'':
So. ge(R) `suffix added to the stem to express resemblance, manner, etc.; like'.
Kh. ga `too, indeed'.
Sa. ge `emphatic particle'.
Mu. gi
  ~ gE `emphatic particle'.
KW gi`

Kh. gERE `duck'.
Sa. gEDE `the domesticated duck (%Anas_domestica)'.
Mu. gEDE
  ~ gERE `the domesticated duck (%Anas_domestica)'.
Ho hedegele `the domesticated duck (%Anas_domestica)'.

``^scrape up'':
Sa. gEj `to scrape up'.
Mu. gEj `to scrape up'.
KW gEj
|Cf. Ej `to scoop up' (RDM).

So. gAlji `ten'.
Go. galgi
  ~ galigi(V) `ten'.
Gu. go:l
  ~ gol `ten'.
Re. go: `ten'.
Kh. ghOl `ten'.
Sa. gEl `ten'.
Ma. gEl `ten'.
Mu. gEl
  ~ gElea
  ~ gelea `ten'.
Ho gel `ten'.
Bh. gEl `ten'.
KW gEl
Ku. gel
  ~ gelya `ten'.

``^ear of ^grain'':
So. A-gale(R) `ear of corn'.
  ~ gAlE `to put forth an ear (as of corn)'.
Kh. gOlE `ear (of corn), to shoot out in ears'.
Sa. gElE `an ear of any kind of grain'.
Mu. gElE `an ear of any kind of grain'.
Bh. gele `an ear of any kind of grain'.
Ku. gElE `an ear of any kind of grain'.

Sa. gElEj `to dig'.
Mu. gElEj `to dig'.
KW gElEj

So. gAr+m
  ~ gar+m `to roar (as a tiger); So. jarum(R) `to bellow (as a buffalo or ghost)''.
Kh. sarOG `to groan'.
Sa. geraG `to groan'.
Mu. geraG `to groan'.
Ho geraG `to groan'.
KW gEraG

Gu. varti: `ring'.
Kh. ubRai `up-turned'.
Kh. ulrai `to turn one's hand over'.
Sa. gErwEl `ring, ring-formed marking (especially on neck, on peacock's feather, on a cobra's neck), striped, speckled, vari'.
Sa. kawal.kawal
  ~ kevel.kevel
  ~ keval kivil
  ~ kivil.kivil `squirming, wriggling, to squirm, wriggle (leeches)'.
Sa. ulTeu `reverse, contrary, to reverse, to turn over'.
Mu. ulTa `to turn over things lying down which are not flat'.

So. garo'j(R) `to put one to shame, to offend modesty'.
Go. gida `to put one to shame, to offend modesty'.
Kh. giOl `shame'.
Mu. giju? `shame, modesty, shyness'.
Ho giu `to be ashamed'.
Ku. gew `to mock, to deride'.

Kh. gil `to beat, to strike'.
Sa. gil `to strike with the fist on the forehead or mouth'.
Mu. gil `a blow with the side of the hand'.  !make a fist, strike (M)
KW gil

``^lie down'':
Kh. gita? `to lie down'.
Sa. giti'j `to lie down, to sleep'.
Mu. giti'j `to lie down, to sleep'.
Ho giti seGer `to lie down, to sleep'.
Bh. gitij `to lie down, to sleep'.
Ku. giti'j `to lie down, to sleep'.
KW gitij

Sa. gitil `sand'.
Mu. gitil `sand'.
KW gitil

``^carry on back'':
So. tiGgo(R) `to carry on the back'.
Kh. gO? `to carry on the shoulder'.
Sa. gO? `to carry on the shoulder'.
  ~ gugu `to carry on the back'.
Mu. gO? `to carry on the shoulder'.
Bh. go? `to carry on the shoulder'.
KW gO?
|Cf. `take_away'.

Kh. gO'D `auxiliary verb with various functions'.
Sa. gO'd `quickly, speedily, suddenly'.  !used suffixed to verb
Mu. gO'd `adverbial affix'.

So. kaye'D(R)
  ~ kiyed
  ~ kaJed `to die'.
  ~ kayyed(R) `to kill'.
Go. kiyad
  ~ kiyed `to die'.
  ~ kittudam(V) `to kill'.
Gu. go:y
  ~ goi-on `to die'.
Re. goi `to die'.
Kh. gO'j
  ~ gO'j ki `death'.  !Joh. 5,21
Kh. gOe'j
  ~ gO'j `to die'.
Ju. goj-ude `to die'.
Sa. gO'j `dead, kill, slay, die'.
  ~ guju? `dead'.
Ma. gOjO? `dead'.
Mu. gOe'j `dead, to kill'.
Mu. gOjO? `to die'.
Ho goi `to die'.  !i.e. gO'j `to die'.
Bh. go'j `to die'.
Dh. gOjO? `to die'.
Kw. go'j `to die'.
Ku. go
  ~ guju `to die'.

``^moustache, ^beard'':
Kh. gucu `mustachios, beard'.
Sa. goco `beard, moustache, whiskers'.
Mu. gucu `beard, mustache'.
Ho gucu `mustaches'.
Bh. gucu `beard and mustache'.
KW gu`cu`

Sa. gOG `to give in marriage'.
Mu. gOG `to give in marriage'.

Sa. goGgo `father's elder brother'.
Mu. guGgu `father's elder brother'.
KW gu`Ggu`

Sa. gOj `to die'.
Mu. gOj `to die'.
KW gOj

Sa. gOja `pointed'.
Mu. gOja `pointed'.
KW gOja

Sa. gOl `to whistle; a whistle'.
Mu. gOlE `to whistle; a whistle'.
|Cf. Gu. sisiGgol??

Kh. gOmkE `master'.
Sa. gomke `owner, master'.
Mu. gOmke `the master of the house'.

Kh. giniG `price, a present to pay the girl's father'.
Sa. gOnOG `the price asked or paid for a bride'.
Mu. gOnOG `the price asked or paid for a bride'.
Bh. gonoG `the price asked or paid for a bride'.
Ku. gonom `price paid for a wife in cash'.
|Kherw* gOG with infixed n (Bodding). * g+noG, * g+nuG (Kuiper). Prob. * g+nOG, whence Mu* gunOG and Kh* ginOG, with present forms by assimilations; or * g+n+G, whence Mu* gunuG or * giniG, but Kh. giniG regularly (HJP).

Sa. gORa `cattle shed'.
Mu. gONa `cattle shed'.

Sa. gOROm `to accompany'.
Mu. gOROm `to accompany'.
|Perhaps related to gOG `to give in marriage', in which case R is some no longer productive infix (RDM).

``^cattle goddess'':
Sa. gOrOya `cattle goddess'.
Mu. gOrEa `cattle goddess'.
KW gOrEa

So. gosor `to wear out, to denude, to erode'.
  ~ gOsOd `to wipe off, clean, dust'.  !Ram. has to wash, to mop, to wipe, really only secondarily changed??
Kh. gOsO? `to anoint'.
  ~ gOsO'D `to wear out, to denude, to erode'.
Mu. gOsO? `to wither, to anoint, to rub'.

Sa. gOsO `to wither'.
Mu. gOsO `to wither'.

``^scrape, ^scratch'':
Sa. gOta? `to scrape, scratch'.
Mu. gOta? `to scrape, scratch'.
KW gOta?

``^rain-coat, ^rain-hat'':
Kh. guGgu `a waterproof covering or hood of leaves, leafy hat (umbrella)'.
Sa. guGgu `a waterproof covering or hood of leaves, leafy hat (umbrella)'.
Mu. guGgu `a waterproof covering or hood of leaves, leafy hat (umbrella)'.
KW guGgu

Sa. guGgud `to embrace; an embrace'.
Mu. guGgud `to embrace; an embrace'.
KW guGgud

So. gum(R) `to winnow'.
Kh. sa'mu `winnowing basket'.
Sa. gum `to clean rice, etc. in the winnowing fan, to sift out the husk'.
Mu. gum `to sift, to winnow, the act of winnowing'.
Bh. gum `to sift, to winnow, the act of winnowing'.
KW gum
Ku. gum `to winnow'.

Sa. guNDa `powder'.
Mu. guNDa `powder'.
KW guNDa

Sa. gundli `millet'.
Mu. gundli `millet'.
KW gundli

Sa. guNDuj `to divide'.
Mu. gaNDuj `to divide'.
KW gaNDuj

So. gur `to ripen'.
  ~ gAnur `to rain'.
  ~ gAnur/ g+m `rain'.  ! gur with n-infix.
Kh. gur `to fall'.
Sa. gur `to fall down; to fell, kill, slaughter'.
  ~ Ju~r `to fell, drop, fall'.  !from * Gur(HJP).
Mu. gur `to fall down; to throw down'.
  ~ nur `to flow out'.  !from * Jur(HJP) from * Gur(HJP).
Ho gur `to throw down'.
KW gur

Sa. guRgu `grinding stone'.
Mu. guRu `grinding stone'.  !sic; recte guRgu??
KW guRgu

Sa. gusuj `to hide'.
Mu. gusuj `to hide'.
KW gusuj

Sa. gutu `to pierce'.
Mu. gutu `to pierce'.
KW gutu

So. k+b(R)
  ~ kab(R) `to bite with the incisors'.
Gu. ob-(2)
Re. ob-(2) `to bite'.
GR Ab-(2)
Gt. ha'-(&) `to bite'.  [pa. ha'-ke, fut. ha'-e].
Sa. ha'b `to take into the mouth, nip'.
Mu. ha'b `to bite'.
Kw. ha'b `to cut'.
KW hab
Ku. kap `to bite with the incisors'.
|Cf. haDab `to bite'.

Sa. habij `until'.
Mu. habij
  ~ hami `until'.  !also habi
KW habij
|* habij - * hambij - hamij (sic) in pre-Mundari (RDM M101).

Sa. haDab `to bite'.
Mu. haDab `to bite'.
KW haDab
|Analyzable as ha[Da]b (RDM) or h[aD]ab (DS); cf. hab `to bite'.

Sa. haDgur `to stir'.
Mu. haDgur `to stir'.
KW haDgur

Sa. haDOpa? `to quiet; silence'.
Mu. haNDupa? `to quiet; silence'.
KW haNDO`pa?
|The N in Mundari is a sporadic development (RDM).

Sa. haga `brother'.
Mu. haga `brother'.
KW haga

So. o'o(D) `yes, to assent, to agree, true'.
Go. o:o:(V) `yes, to assent, to agree, true'.
Gu. o:y `yes, to assent, to agree, true'.
Kh. ho
  ~ hoi `yes'.
Ju. ho~ `yes, to assent, to agree, true'.
Sa. hAi `yes, quite so, won't you'.
Sa. hie
  ~ ho `listen!'.
Ma. hE~: `yes, to assent, to agree, true'.
Mu. hE:
  ~ hE~: `yes, to assent, to agree, true'.
Bh. hE~: `yes, to assent, to agree, true'.
Dh. hE~: `yes, to assent, to agree, true'.
Ku. he~ `yes, to assent, to agree, true'.
Na. ha~: `yes'.

``^brinjal, ^eggplant, ^aubergine'':
So. AnDAraj(R)
  ~ andAraj
  ~ AnDaraj/ Daj `brinjal (%Solanum_melongena)'.
Go. reGra `brinjal'.
Kh. ka~R~ai
  ~ kaNDrai `brinjal (%Solanum_melongena)'.  ! kaNDra'j
Mu. haJjE'd-daru
  ~ maraG-daru `brinjal (%Solanum_torvum,_Schwartz'.
Mu. huRiG-daru `brinjal (%Solanum_indicum,_Linn.)'.

Sa. haJju? `sunken'.
Mu. haJju?
  ~ haJjuG `sunken'.
KW haJju?
  ~ haJjuG
|This G : ? correspondence suggests that ? represents g (RDM).

So. Ayo `fish'.
Go. ayu `fish'.
Kh. kaDOG `fish'.
Sa. hako `fish'.
Mu. hai(H)
  ~ haku(N)
  ~ haikO(M) `fish'.
Ho haku `fish'.
Bj. hai `fish'.
Bh. haku `fish'.
KW haikO
  ~ hakO
|Analyzed hai-kO, ha-kO (RDM).
Ku. kaku `fish'.

Sa. hala `to repay'.
Mu. hal `to repay'.
KW hala
|Only example in which pre-Mundari has dropped a final vowel (RDM).

Sa. halaG `to pick up'.
Mu. halaG `to pick up'.
KW halaG

Sa. halE `hello'.
Mu. halE `hello'.
KW halE

Sa. halO `to scoop'.
Mu. halu `to scoop'.
KW halO`

Kh. kEnEl
  ~ kEnhEl `heavy'.
Sa. hamal `weight, heaviness, difficulty, heavy'.
Mu. hamal(N)
  ~ hambal(NH) `heavy, heaviness'.
Bh. hambal `heavy'.
Ku. khamal `heavy'.
Mw. kamal-ba `heavy'.
KW hambal
|Loan from U. HAmalAh `bearing' (Bodding).  The b in Mundari seems to be secondary (RDM).

Sa. hambud `to embrace'.
Mu. hambud `to embrace'.
KW hambud

Sa. hambuj `sunken'.
Mu. hambuj `sunken'.
KW hambuj

``^that, ^yonder'':
Kh. han `yonder, that far off'.
Sa. han `see that (far away, shown)'.
Mu. han `yonder'.
KW han
|Analyzed h-an (RDM).

``^bamboo, ^bamboo_shoot'':
So. ur+G/ ur `bamboo'.
Kh. kONDEG `mature bamboo'.
Sa. hANDuA `an article of food made from the young shoots of bamboo'.  !Desi ha:NDoya:  ??Desi?
Mu. haNDua
  ~ haNDua-utu `bamboo shoots, used as vegetables'.
KW haNDua

So. kinar-boj(R)
  ~ kinar `mother-in-law'.
Go. kina:r `mother-in-law'.
Gu. kina:r `mother-in-law'.
Re. kijar `mother-in-law'.
Kh. kiJkar
  ~ kinkar `mother-in-law'.
Sa. hanhar `mother-in-law'.
Mu. hanar `mother-in-law'.
Ho hanar `mother-in-law'.
Bh. hanhar `mother-in-law'.
Kw. henhar `mother-in-law'.
Ku. kaGkar `mother-in-law'.

``red ^ant'':
Sa. hao `a kind of large red ant (%Oecophylla_smaragdina)'.
Mu. hau(M)
  ~ hao-mui'j(P) `a large red ant'.
KW haO`

Sa. hapanum `young girl'.
Mu. hapanum `young girl'.
KW hapanum
|Contains an infix ha[pa]num (RDM), or h[ap]anum (DS).

Sa. hapE `quiet; to be quiet'.
Mu. hapE
  ~ hapa `quiet; to be quiet'.
KW hapE
|Mundaric a as V2 probably due to assimilation to V1 (RDM).

``^bird sp.'':
Kh. khapu?
  ~ khapu `name of a bird'.
Sa. hApu' cE~R~E~ `nightjar, %Caprimulgus_monticolus, or %Caprimulgus_asiaticus, a common small bird'.
Mu. hapu? `a bat, the flying fox, %Pteropus_Edwarsi (??P); a kind of bird (RDM)'.
KW hapu?

``^tree sp.'':
Sa. haR `kind of tree'.
Mu. haRa `kind of tree'.
KW haRa

Sa. haR `to disappear'.
Mu. haNa `to disappear'.  !sic
KW haRa

``^winnowing fan'':
Sa. haRa? `winnowing fan'.
Mu. haTa? `winnowing fan'.
KW haTa?  !orig. ha'ta???

Sa. haRa? `to stumble'.
Mu. haRa? `to stumble'.
KW haRa?

Sa. harab `to satiate'.
Mu. harOb `to satiate'.
KW harOb
|Santali seems to have assimilated V2 to V1 (RDM).

Sa. haRam `old'.
Mu. haRam `old'.
KW haRam

``^bitter, hot'':
Sa. haRhad `bitter, hot'.
Mu. haRhad `bitter, hot'.
KW haRhad
|Reduplicated? (DS).

Sa. haRij `dog'.
Mu. haRij
  ~ haRi `dog'.  !also haDi M101.
KW haRij
  ~ haRi
  ~ haDi  !M101; haDij?

So. kinam(R)
  ~ ku"nam/ ku"m
  ~ kim `husks'.
So. kurraG(R) `the outer layer, bark, rind'.
Gu. arta: `skin'.
Kh. kalO'b `bark of a tree'.
Kh. ku~R~a~? `husk'.
Sa. harta `skin, leather, hide, shelter'.
Sa. hERE `husk, chaff, to mix with husk'.
Sa. ur `to peel off, flay, to skin'.
Mu. harta `bark of a tree'.
Mu. hERE `husk, chaff, to mix with husk'.
Mu. uR `bark of a tree'.
Mu. ur `to dig with a spade, to hoe, leather, hide, skin'.
Ho harta `bark of a tree'.
Ho ur `skin'.
Bh. harta `bark of a tree'.
Bh. heRe `chaff'.
Ku. katre
  ~ ka:TRe:
  ~ kataRe
  ~ kate:Re: `skin, leather'.

So. r+b `to cover, put a lid on'.
Kh. ra'b
  ~ rA'b `to bury'.
  ~ r[an]a'b.ra'b `burial ground'.
Sa. hAru'b `to cover by putting something over'.
Mu. haru'b `to cover by putting something over'.
Ho haru'b `to cover by putting something over'.
KW harub
Ku. karup `to cover'.

So. konDo `to embrace'.
  ~ kUnd+b `to grasp with the hand'.
Kh. kaRO? `to embrace'.  !Pret. kaDukhO?
  ~ kaRukhO?
Sa. hARu'b `to throw one's arm around, embrace'.
Mu. haRub `to embrace'.
KW haRub

Sa. hasa `soil'.
Mu. hasa `soil'.
KW hasa

``^pain, fever, ^ill'':
So. Asu/ su `fever, illness, to be ill'.
  ~ Asu-da `pain, to feel pain'.
Go. a:su `illness'.
Gu. isi `sick, pain'.
Re. si:-ta: `pain, illness'.
Kh. kOsu `sick, to be ill, pain'.
Sa. haso `pain, hurt, ache'.  ??o/O
Mu. hasu `sickness, pain, illness'.
Ho hassu `sickness, pain, illness'.
Bh. hasu `sickness, pain, illness'.
KW hasO`
Ku. kasu `pain, illness'.

Sa. hasur `to set (of the sun, moon)'.
Mu. hasur `to set (of the sun, moon)'.
KW hasur

Sa. hataG `brain'.
Mu. hataG `brain'.
KW hataG

Sa. hataR `already'.
Mu. hantaR `already'.
KW hataR
  ~ hantaR

``^share, ^divide, ^distribute, ^serve'':
So. tit.ti(R)
  ~ tiy.tiy(R) `to serve out'.
Gu. tesso `served me'.
  ~ tu-nu `share'.  !verb??
  ~ tuG.tUG-to:ro: `divided'.
Kh. ta'y `to serve out (rice), to distribute, to share'.
Sa. hATiJ `share, part, division'.
Mu. haTiJ
  ~ haTiG `to divide'.
Bh. haTiG
  ~ hanaTiG `to share, divide'.
KW haTiJ
  ~ haTiG
Ku. katiG `to divide'.

Sa. hatla? `armpit'.
Mu. hatla? `armpit'.
KW hatla?

Sa. hatOm `aunt'.
Mu. hatOm `aunt'.
KW hatOm

Sa. hawE'd `to dry, dry up, evaporate, drain, be purified'.

Sa. haya `greed'.
Mu. haya `greed'.
KW haya

``^put into water'':
Sa. ha~RO~b `to put into water'.
Mu. haNOb `to put into water'.
KW haNOb

Sa. hE~ `yes'.
Mu. hE `yes'.
|The nasalization could be due to Bengali he~ `yes' (RDM).

Sa. hEbEN `tasteless'.
Mu. hEbEn `tasteless'.
KW hEbEn

So. iy(D) `to come, to go'.
Go. uai(RR) `to go'.
Kh. ai'j `to come'.
Sa. hE'j `to come, arrive'.  ! hiju?
Ma. hE'j
  ~ hEjO? `to come'.
Mu. hi'j
  ~ hiju? `to come'.
Ho huju?
  ~ huju `to come'.
Bh. hiju? `to come'.
Dh. hiju? `to come'.
As. veju `to come'.
Kw. vi'j `to come'.
KW hE`j
Ku. hAjE:
  ~ hejE: `to come'.

Kh. kE'j `to pluck'.  ! kEchO? `he plucked'.
Sa. hE'j `to pluck leaves'.
Mu. hE'j `to pluck leaves'.
Ho he `to pluck leaves'.  !i.e. really Ho hE'j
Bh. he'j `to pluck leaves'.
KW hEj

Sa. hEjER `to bare'.
Mu. hEjER `to bare'.

Kh. kOlE'D `bamboo, young shoot of the bamboo'.
Sa. helta `a young bamboo shoot'.
Tu. helta `sprout'.
KW hElta
Ku. kilta `sprouts of bamboo'.

``^thereabouts, around there'':
Sa. hE-man `around there'.
Mu. hE-man `around there'.
KW hE-man
|Perhaps the contracted form of hEn-man, but -man is unidentified (RDM).

``^like that'':
Sa. hEn-ka `like that'.
Mu. hEn-ka `like that'.
KW hEn-ka

``^come close, listen'':
Sa. hEnad `to come close, listen'.
Mu. hEnad `to come close, listen'.
KW hEnad

Sa. hEndE `black'.
Mu. hEndE `black'.
Ho hende `black'.
Bj. hende `black'.
KW hEndE
Ku. kende `black'.

Sa. hENDEd `to shut'.
Mu. haNDEd `to shut'.
KW ha`NDEd

Sa. hEGga `to rub'.
Mu. hEGga `to rub'.
KW hEGga

Sa. hER `husk'.
Mu. hERE `husk'.
  ~ hER
|See M146 on loss of the final V (RDM).

Sa. hErEl `husband'.
Mu. hErEl `husband'.
KW hErEl

Sa. hEREm `sweet'.
Mu. hEREm `sweet'.

Sa. hERhEd `to weed'.
Mu. hERhEd `to weed'.

``^carry under arm'':
Sa. hErmEd `to carry under one's arm'.
Mu. hErmEd `to carry under one's arm'.
KW hErmEd

``^cling together'':
Sa. hErpad `to cling together'.
Mu. hEpad `to cling together'.
KW hEpad
|The Santali form seems to contain some infix (RDM).

``^chop off'':
Sa. hEsE `to chop off'.
Mu. hEsE `to chop off'.

``^tree sp.'':
So. E'El(Z) `tree sp. (Oriya bandhOn, %Grewia_elastica)'.
Kh. kEsEl `a common forest tree (%Anogeissus_latifolia,_Wall)'.
Sa. hEsEl `a common forest tree (%Anogeissus_latifolia,_Wall)'.
Mu. hEsEl
  ~ hEsEl-daru `a common forest tree (%Anogeissus_latifolia,_Wall)'.

``^look back'':
Sa. hEta `to look back'.
Mu. hEta `to look back'.
KW hEta

Sa. hEwa `habit'.
Mu. hEwa `habit'.
KW hEwa

Sa. hE~hE~l `rat hole'.
Mu. hEhOl `rat hole'.
KW hEhOl
|Nasalization in the Santali form not explained (DS).

Sa. hiGguR `to hit'.
Mu. hiGguR `to hit'.
KW hiGguR

Sa. hiJjid `to drain'.
Mu. hiJjid
  ~ hi~jid `to drain'.  !Also hiJji (M137)
KW hiJjid
|Cf. rEJjEd `to drain, press'; RDM M130 juxtaposes these and puts a morpheme boundary between the syllables.

``elder ^sister-in-law'':
Sa. hili `elder sister-in-law'.
Mu. hili `elder sister-in-law'.
KW hili

So. in-ten `that'.
Kh. hin `this'.
Sa. hin `that'.
Mu. hini? `this one (pejorative)'.

Sa. hiri `to visit'.
Mu. hira
  ~ hiri `to visit'.
KW hiri
|The forms with /i/ as V2 presumably due to assimilation to V1 (RDM).

So. kAre-Da `to forget'.
Go. oRiG `to forget'.
Kh. iri'b `to forget'.
Sa. hiRiJ `to forget'.
Mu. riRiJ(M)
  ~ riRiG
  ~ iRiG(K)
  ~ hiRiG `to forget'.
Ho riG `to forget'.
Bh. riRiG `to forget'.
KW hiRiJ
  ~ hiRiG  !Why not r-?
Ku. riG `to forget'.
|Kuiper OrN 397 posits * rih or * riG.

Sa. hirOm `co-wife'.
Mu. hirum `co-wife'.
KW hirO`m
@WIFE (M055)

Kh. hepa'D `to approach, near'.
Sa. hObO hObO `to bring near, approach, be at hand'.
Mu. hOpOr `near; Mu. hena'd(H)'.
  ~ hepa'd(H)
  ~ kepa'd(N) `placed so as to touch something'.
Bh. henad(K) `X'.

Sa. hOd `to comb'.
Mu. hOd `to comb'.
KW hOd

Kh. hOi
  ~ hoi `to be, to become, to happen'.
Sa. hoe `to finish, subdue, become, be, come to pass, happen'.

Kh. kOyO `wind'.
Ju. koyo `air, breeze, wind'.
Sa. hOe `wind, air, climate, to blow'.
Mu. hOyO `air, breeze, wind'.  | hOEO(M).
Ho hoyo `air, breeze, wind'.
Bh. hoyo `air, breeze, wind'.
Ku. koyo
  ~ koiyo
  ~ koiyo~ `air, breeze, wind'.

So. kuJar(R) `father-in-law'.
Kh. gunmEr `father-in-law'.
Kh. kinkar `mother-in-law'.
Sa. hOJhar `father-in-law'.
Mu. hOJhar `father-in-law, elder brother-in-law'.
  ~ hOJjar(H) `father-in-law'.
  ~ hOJjar(N)
  ~ hOnear `father-in-law'.
Ho honar `father-in-law'.
Bh. honjar `father-in-law'.
Kw. honhar `father-in-law'.
KW hOJhar
Ku. kuGkar `father-in-law'.
|Analyzable hOJ-har (RDM).

So. o'j
  ~ oi-to `to scrape, to pare'.
Kh. kOi `to shave'.
  ~ k[On]Oi `razor'.
Sa. hOyO `to shave'.
Mu. hOyO `to shave'.  ! hOeO
Ho hoeo `to shave'.
Bh. hoyo `to shave'.
Ku. koyo `to shave'.  ! ko:yo

Sa. hola `yesterday'.  ??O/o.
Mu. hola `yesterday'.  !cf. hulaG  ??O/o.
  ~ ula
  ~ ulaG `a single day'.
Ho hola `yesterday'.
Bh. hola `yesterday'.
KW hOla
Ku. kola `yesterday'.

``^razor, ^blade'':
Sa. hola'd `razor, blade'.  ! hOlad(M).
Mu. hola'd `razor, blade'.  ! hOlad(M).
KW hOlad
|Perhaps hOl-ad, but the first element is unidentified (RDM).

Kh. kOlOG `flour, bread'.
Sa. hOlOG `flour, bread, to grind into flour'.
Mu. hOlOG `flour, bread, to grind into flour'.
Bh. holoG `flour'.
Ku. kolom `flour'.

So. guntur `a large rat'.
  ~ kAntUr
  ~ kintUr `a bat'.
  ~ ondreG(R) `a kind of small rat'.
Go. ku~tur `mouse'.
Gu. kuntai `rat'.
Kh. kOnE `mouse'.
Sa. hOn `rat, house-rat'.
Mu. huni `rat'.
KW hO`nE`
Ku. godai `rat'.

So. O'On/ On `child'.  !Ram. dial. CF oG.
Go. aGo:n `child'.
  ~ taGo:n `cow-calf'.
Gu. o:n `child'.
  ~ vo:n `child'.
Re. 'on(B)
  ~ on(E)
  ~ oJ(R) `child'.
Kh. kONDu? `child'.
  ~ kOnOn `small, little'.
Ju. kon-i
  ~ koNDa `son'.
Sa. hOn `son, child'.
  ~ hOpOn `offspring, young, child'.  !with p-infix
Ma. hOpOn `a child'.
Mu. hOn `a child'.
Ho hon `a child'.
Bh. hOn
  ~ hOpOn `a child'.
Dh. hOn `a child'.
Kw. hopon `a child'.
KW hOn
Ku. ko:n `son'.

Kh. ho `that'.
Sa. hon `that (shown, at a distance)'.
Mu. hOndEr `that, some time ago'.

Sa. hOnaG `perhaps'.
Mu. hOnaG `perhaps'.
KW hOnaG

Sa. hONDa? `to stir'.
Mu. hONDa?
  ~ hONDa `to stir'.
  ~ hONDa

Gu. ludo:riG `to take from him'.
Kh. DO'D `to take, to carry, to drag'.
Kh. hintOr
  ~ intOr `to carry (a child by binding it with a cloth)'.
Sa. hondoR `to carry away, as a tiger does a goat'.
Ku. dindur `to carry'.
@(V215, V399)

``^tree sp.'':
Sa. hopo `kind of tree'.
Mu. hupu `kind of tree'.
KW hu`pu`

``^male, ^man'':
So. OGgEr `a male'.
Kh. kOR
  ~ kaR
  ~ kAR `person, man'.  !in many compounds, e.g. bOkEr `brother-in-law' (* bOkO-kEr(DS)).  ??A?
  ~ ukar `this, this person'.
  ~ kODpORu? `husband'.  !as opposed to kOnsElDu `wife'.
  ~ kOn-gher
  ~ Ongher
  ~ ungher
  ~ ungheR `young man, slave, servant (as opposed to Kh. kOnsEl young woman, from kOn child)'.
  ~ koTa `masculine indicator in compounds, e.g. koTa $OlO male dog'.
Ju. kongher `young'.
Sa. hOR `a man, person, human being, a Santal'.
  ~ hErEl `a male, man, husband'.
  ~ koRa `a boy, lad, young man'.
  ~ kuRi `a girl, young woman'.
Ma. hOR
  ~ hEpEl
  ~ hErEr `man'.
Mu. hORO `a man, a Munda; hORO-jagar'.
  ~ hORO-kaji `the language of men, the Mundari language'.
  ~ hErEl `full-grown man, husband'.
  ~ koRa `a man, male, a husband'.
  ~ kuri `a wife, woman, girl'.
Ho ho: `a man, a Ho'.
  ~ koa `a man, male, a husband'.
  ~ kui `a wife, woman, girl'.
Bj. horro `man'.
Bh. hOR `a man'.  !Bh. biR-hOR `forest man, a Birhor'.
Dh. hORO
  ~ hOR
  ~ hErEl `man'.
Kw. hoR `man'.
Ku. koro `man'.  !plur. kor-ku, kur-ku `the Kurkus'.
Na. ja:koTo `male (of animals)'.

``^way, ^road, ^path'':
So. tAGOR/ gOd
  ~ gailo-god(R)
  ~ panta-god(R) `road, way'.
  ~ gAmaG-gOd `way to become chief'.
Gu. kuGgo:r `way'.
Kh. gO'DjhuG
  ~ gO'jjhuG
  ~ gO'jhuG `way'.
Sa. hOr
  ~ hOra `way, road, path'.
Mu. hora(H)
  ~ hora(N)
  ~ hOr `way, road, path'.
Bh. hora `road'.
KW hOra
Ku. kora `way'.

``^pulse sp.'':
Sa. hORE~j `kind of pulse'.
Mu. hOREj `kind of pulse'.
|Nasalization in Santali unexplained (DS).

Sa. hORmO `the body, (fig.) tribe, sept, to make or become thick'.
Mu. hORmO `physical body'.
Ho homo `physical body'.
Bh. hoRmo `physical body'.
Ku. kombor `physical body'.
|The analysis of Sinha 1964 into hOR-mO `man-, -swell' is implausible (RDM).

Sa. hOrO? `to insert'.
Mu. hOrO? `to insert'.
KW hOrO?
|Cf. sOrO?, sOrlO? `id.'.  ??lg?

``^good, well'':%%  ??dubious
So. laGga(R) `handsome, good looking'.
Go. le:(V) `good'.
Gu. jalem `good'.
Gu. le:-ko: `good'.
Kh. kElOm `good'.  !Joh.7,12
Mu. hOrO'b `to become well, to be cured, to be convalescent'.

So. kulu(R) `tortoise'.
Kh. kulu `tortoise'.
Sa. hOrO `tortoise'.
Mu. hOrO `tortoise'.
  ~ da' hOrO `%Trionys sp.'.
  ~ piRi hOrO `%Testudo_elegans'.
Ho horo `tortoise'.

So. sArO/ sAr `paddy'.
Sa. hoRo
  ~ huRu `paddy, the rice plant (Oryza sativa, L.)'.
Mu. huRu(K) `rice'.  !equals Mu. baba
Bh. huRu `rice'.
Tu. huRu `rice'.
KW hu`Ru`

``^tear off'':
Sa. hOsEj `to tear off'.
Mu. hOsEj `to tear off'.
KW hOsEj

Sa. hOsOd
  ~ hOsrOd `to move'.
Mu. hOsOd
  ~ hOsrOd `to move'.
KW hOsOd
  ~ hOsrOd
|The second form has internalized a now unproductive nominalizing infix (RDM).

Sa. hOsOr `to descend'.
Mu. hOsOr `to descend'.
KW hOsOr

Kh. hOsOR `a lie'.  !Joh. 8,44, 8,55 (P sez it's a Mu loan)
Sa. hOsOr `to slip down, glide down, miscarry'.
Mu. hOsOR~
  ~ hOsARO `falsehood, a lie, false'.

Sa. hOTa? `to stir'.
Mu. hOTa? `to stir'.
KW hOTa?

Sa. hOTO? `neck'.
Mu. hOTO? `neck'.

Sa. hOTOr `to pierce'.
Mu. hOTOr
  ~ hODOr `to pierce'.

Sa. huaG `ditch'.
Mu. huaG `ditch'.
KW huaG

Sa. huca? `to break'.
Mu. huca? `to break'.
KW huca?
|Cf. hula? `to break'.

Kh. khORiG
  ~ khARiG `short, a little'.
  ~ khO~R~iJga `a short time'.  !cf. kaTi'j `some, a little'.
Sa. huDiJ `small, little, young'.
Mu. huDiJ
  ~ huDiG
  ~ huRiG `little, small, few'.
Ho huri? `little, small, few'.
Bh. huRi? `little, small, few'.
KW huDiJ
  ~ huDiG
@(V103,M062, cf. V094)

Sa. hudma `to throw'.  !cited as hutma M122.
Mu. hudma `to throw'.
KW hudma

Sa. hula? `to break'.
Mu. hula? `to break'.
KW hula?
|Cf. huca? `to break'.

Mu. humu `filth, dirt, dirty'.
Ho homu `dirty'.
Bh. humu `filth, dirt, dirty'.
Ku. kumu `dirty'.

Kh. DuruG `to pound (paddy)'.
Sa. huRuG `to pound, husk, pulverize'.
Mu. ruRuG `to husk rice in a dhenki (husking machine)'.
Ho ruG `to grind'.  !from * ruuG from * ruRuG(HJP).
Bh. ruRuG `to poke or give a thrust, as with a stick'.
KW huRuG
  ~ ruRuG
Ku. rum `to pound with a pestle, to bray'.
|One of two cases of this h : r correspondence (RDM).
@(V116,M066, cf. V139)

Sa. huruR `to wither'.
Mu. uruR `to wither'.
KW huruR
|This is the only example where the pre-Mundari form drops initial C (RDM).

Sa. husid `to catch'.
Mu. husid `to catch'.
KW husid

Sa. husid `to scrape'.
Mu. husid `to scrape'.
KW husid

``^flower sp.'':
Sa. huTEr `kind of flower'.
Mu. huTar `kind of flower'.
KW huTa`r

``^insect sp.'':
Sa. huti `kind of insect'.
Mu. huti `kind of insect'.
KW huti

``^rinse mouth'':
Sa. hutum `to rinse one's mouth'.
Mu. hutum `to rinse one's mouth'.
KW hutum

So. koDa
  ~ kuda `oven, hearth'.
Kh. kulDa? `fever'.
Mu. i'dkula'd
  ~ i'dkula?
  ~ i'dkula `a rough fireplace made of stones or clods in the courtyard or under a tree'.

``^so and so'':
Sa. ia `so and so'.
Mu. ia `so and so'.
KW ia

Sa. ibil `thick'.
Mu. ibil `thick'.
KW ibil

``^pinch; prawn; plant'':
Sa. ica? `to pinch; prawn; plant'.
Mu. ica? `to pinch; prawn; plant'.
KW ica?

Sa. idi `to take away'.
Mu. idi `to take away'.
KW idi

Sa. idu `perhaps'.
Mu. idu `perhaps'.
KW idu

So. gaDij(D) `to wipe oneself after defecating'.  ! gad `to scrape'.
Go. iktaG `cowdung'.
Gu. iktaG `cowdung'.
  ~ jittija: `dung'.
Re. iktaG `cowdung'.
Kh. i'j `to ease (oneself)'.
  ~ itthaG `cowdung'.  !from i'j-taG
Sa. i'j `excrement, to ease oneself'.
Mu. i'j `to defecate; dung, excrement'.
Ho i `dung'.
Bh. ii `stools'.  !i.e. i'j
KW ij
Ku. ij `dung'.

So. iJ `me'.  !Ram., dial. iG
Go. miG
  ~ e-niG `I'.  !accus. CF iG
Go. miGgu(V) `I'.
Gu. niG
  ~ o:niG `I'.
Re. niG `I'.
Kh. iG
  ~ iJ `I'.
Ju. aiG
  ~ aiJ-je `I'.
Sa. iJ `I'.
Ma. iJ `I'.
Mu. iJ
  ~ iG
  ~ aiG `I'.
Ho iG `I'.
Bj. iG `I'.
Bh. iJ `I'.
Dh. iJ `I'.
Ku. iG `I'.
Na. iG
  ~ iGge:
  ~ e:Gge:
  ~ hiGge: `my'.  !I is jo

Sa. ika `to pardon'.
Mu. ika `to pardon'.
KW ika

Kh. akha~R~ `dense, deep'.
Mu. ikir `deep, depth'.
Ho ikir `deep, depth'.

Sa. ikRum `to kneel'.
Mu. ikRum `to kneel'.
KW ikRum

``^quill, ^feather'':
Sa. il `feather, quill'.
Mu. ihil(N)
  ~ iil(H)
  ~ il(M) `long stiff feathers in the wings and tail'.
KW il

Sa. ilEd `to plaster'.  ! ilat?
  ~ ilet? `to plaster or plug up a hole or crack' (Campbell).  !Cf. jilet? `to adhere to, as plaster' (Campbell).
Mu. ilad `to plaster'.
KW ila`d

So. Ali/ li `salpa, liquor, beer, wine'.
Go. alli `liquor'.
Gu. ili:
  ~ illi `liquor'.
Re. ili
  ~ illi `liquor'.
Mu. ili `rice-beer'.
Bh. ili `rice-beer'.

``^liver, ^heart'':
Sa. im `liver'.
Mu. ihim(N)
  ~ iim(H)
  ~ im(M) `liver (P), heart (M)'.
Ho im `liver'.
Bh. ihim `liver'.
KW im  !Or ihim based on the dialects (DS).

Sa. ipil `star'.
Ma. ipil `star'.
Mu. ipil `star'.
Ho ipil `star'.
Bj. ipil `star'.
Bh. ipil `star'.
Dh. ipil `star'.
Kw. ipil
  ~ epal `star'.
KW ipil
Ku. ipil `star'.
Mw. epal `star'.
Na. iphil-ta: `star'.  !recte prob. -Ta:(HJP)
|Kuiper posits * i- or * +- (he writes * A- plus *p+li:h from * p+lohi or * p+loih PMW 71; for * h HJP would posit * G; pil, phil regularly from * p+liG in Kherwari in the neighborhood of i (HJP). SB S 436.

Sa. ir `to reap'.
Mu. ir `to reap'.
KW ir

Sa. irAl `eight'.
Ma. iral `eight'.
Mu. iral
  ~ iralia
  ~ irelia
  ~ irilia `eight'.
Ho irilia `eight'.
Bh. irAl `eight'.
KW iral
Ku. ilar
  ~ ilaria `eight'.

Sa. irci `to sprinkle'.
Mu. hirci `to sprinkle'.
KW hirci
|The h-loss in Santali is unexplained (RDM).

``^millet sp.'':
Sa. iRi `kind of millet'.
Mu. iRi `kind of millet'.
KW iRi

Sa. isi `twenty'.
Mu. hisi `twenty'.
KW hisi
|The h-loss in Santali is unexplained (RDM).

So. Asin `to boil, be boiled or cooked'.  !intrans.
  ~ A[b]sin `to boil, cause to boil'.  !trans.
Kh. isin `to boil, to bake'.
Sa. isin `to cook, to boil'.
Mu. isin `to cook, to boil'.
Ho isin-(i) `to cook, to boil'.
Bh. isin `to cook, to boil'.
Ku. isin `to cook, to boil'.

``^show one's teeth'':
Sa. isiR `to show one's teeth'.
Mu. isiR `to show one's teeth'.
KW isiR

Sa. ita `seed'.
Mu. hita `seed'.
KW hita
|One of a few Santali forms which drop h; see Munda M154.

Sa. itil `fat'.
Mu. itil `fat'.
KW itil

Sa. itkid `to massage'.
Mu. itkid `to massage'.
KW itkid

So. yu `to shake, shake fruit from a tree'.
  ~ yur-p+D `to shake, as while dusting a carpet'.
  ~ yur.yur `to shiver, shake off'.
Kh. ur `to shake'.
  ~ yur-bO? `to shake (one's hand or head)'.
Mu. iur `a cool breeze, wind or draft, in summer'.

Sa. ja?
  ~ Ja? `to touch'.
Mu. ja? `to touch'.
KW ja?
|The Santali correspondence j : J is unexplained (RDM).

So. ja `also, likely, even'.
  ~ jAnaG(M) `also'.
  ~ jaRi(M) `sure, certain'.
Kh. ja `emphatic particle, too, indeed'.
  ~ jo(BD) `also, even'.
Ju. jau(P) `also'.
Sa. ja `anything, about, something like'.
Mu. ja
  ~ ja~ `any, at all, perhaps, may be, whatever'.
Bh. ja `perhaps'.
KW ja

So. JaG `find, get'.
  ~ Jam `catch hold of, seize, arrest, obtain, accept'.
Kh. lam.lam `hunt'.
  ~ lam `search, seek'.
Sa. Ja
  ~ Jam `find, seek, get, obtain'.
Mu. Jam
  ~ nam `search, find'.
Ho nam `search, find'.
Bh. nam `search, find'.
KW Jam
  ~ nam
|The Santali form is the only exception to the rule (Munda M026) whereby we expect n before a and J before other vowels (RDM).

Sa. jadur `kind of dance'.
Mu. jadur `kind of dance'.
KW jadur

Sa. jaE `grandchild'.
Mu. jai `grandchild'.
KW jaE`

So. ja'aG
  ~ A-jaG/ jaG `bone'.
Go. zaG `bone'.
Kh. jaG `bone'.
Sa. jaG `bone, seed, kernel'.
Mu. jaG `bone, seed, kernel'.
Bh. jaG `bone, seed, kernel'.
KW jaG

So. je'eG/ jeG `foot, leg'.
Go. ji:G
  ~ suG `foot, leg'.
Gu. susuG `foot, leg'.
Kh. gujuG `to wash one's feet'.
Ju. ijiG `foot'.
Sa. jaGga `foot'.
Ma. jaGga `foot'.
Mu. jaGga `foot'.
Ku. naGga `foot'.

``cooked ^rice'':
Sa. jagu `cooked rice'.
Mu. jagu `cooked rice'.
KW jagu

Kh. jOkOr `snail'.
Sa. jaha'd jOhO'd `slowly, languidly'.
Sa. jOhOr `hanging low down, reaching to the feet, keep back, delay, be belated'.
Sa. jOhOt mOhOt `slowly, dilatorily'.

Sa. jahEr `sacred grove'.
Mu. jahEr `sacred grove'.
KW jahEr

Sa. jaJjE `to lack'.
Mu. jaJji `to lack'.
KW jaJjE`

Sa. jaJjid `fish trap'.
Mu. jaJjid `fish trap'.
KW jaJjid

So. jal `to lick'.
Kh. jal `to lick, to taste'.
Sa. jal `to lick'.
Mu. jal `to lick'.
KW jal
Ku. jal `to lick'.

Sa. jalad `to stick'.
Mu. jalad `to stick'.
KW jalad

Sa. jalE `kind of dance'.
Mu. jali
  ~ jaali `kind of dance'.
KW jalE`

``^snake sp.'':
Sa. jambRO `kind of snake'.
Mu. jambRu `kind of snake'.
KW jambRO`

``^grass sp.'':
Sa. janhE `kind of grass'.
Mu. janhE `kind of grass'.
KW janhE

Sa. janum `thorn'.
Mu. janum `thorn'.
KW janum

``^old times'':
Sa. jaO `old times'.
Mu. jaO `old times'.
KW jaO

Sa. japa? `to close'.
Mu. japa? `to close'.
KW japa?

Sa. japar `to split'.
Mu. japar `to split'.
KW japar

Kh. japi'D `to shut the eyes'.
  ~ (mO'D) rapi'D `to twinkle'.
Sa. jApi'd `to shut the eyes, sleep'.
  ~ jipi'd `to close one eye'.
  ~ ripi'd `to wink with the eyes, to blink'.
Mu. japid
  ~ jipid `to close one's eyes'.
  ~ rapi'd `twinkling of an eye'.
  ~ ripi'd.ripi'd `to shut the eyes momentarily'.
Ho japid `to shut the eyes'.
  ~ rapid `to wink, to blink'.
Bh. japid `to shut the eyes'.
KW japid
Ku. japid
  ~ jipid `to shut the eyes'.

Sa. japud
  ~ jalpud `to rain; rain'.
Mu. japud `to rain; rain'.
KW japud
|The l in the Santali variant is perhaps some infix (RDM).

Sa. jargE `to rain; rain'.  ! j `sic'.
Mu. gargi `to rain; rain'.
KW gargE`

Sa. jarum `ripe'.
Mu. jarum
  ~ jarOm `ripe'.
KW jarum
  ~ jarO`m

Sa. jaTa? `to stick'.
Mu. jaTa? `to stick'.
KW jaTa?

So. ja:ta(R)
  ~ jaita(R) `short'.
Kh. jati? `short'.  !cf. kaTi'j `little'.
Sa. jati? `small, of different age'.
Mu. jati'd `to do something a little or too little, too little, very little'.

Sa. JEd `to dye'.
Mu. nEd `to dye'.
KW nEd
  ~ JEd

Sa. jEGgEd `red'.
Mu. jEGgEd `red'.
|So. jE'E `red'.

Kh. jeko-Da? `to hiccup'.
Mu. jego `overcooked'.
Mu. jeko `overcooked'.
@(V179 ??)

Gu. ju `to see'.
Kh. yO `to see'.  !Bage, Ban.
  ~ yO?(K)
  ~ yo(?)
  ~ yo?(Joh.-Ev.) `to see'.  ??check refs
Ju. yo `to see'.
Sa. JEl `to see, to look, to appear'.
Sa. kOyO? `to look up'.
Sa. oyoG `to look into'.
Mu. kOyO? `to peep, to examine something with bent, stretched, or twisted neck'.
Mu. lEl(H)
  ~ nEl(N)
  ~ JEl(B) `to see, look, consider'.
Ho nel `to see'.
Bh. lel
  ~ nel `to see'.
  ~ nEl
Ku. do:
  ~ `to see'.  !?? not sure about gloss
Ku. el `to look, peep'.  !really y~el
@(V395,M075, M135)

So. jElu/ jEl `meat, flesh'.  !the CF also serves for kAmbon `pig'.
Go. tsi:l
  ~ tsisi:l
  ~ sisi'l(Bh) `flesh'.
Gu. tseli `flesh'.
Re. seli `flesh'.
Sa. jel `flesh, meat, give flesh or meat'.
Mu. jilu `flesh, meat, deer'.
Bh. jilu `flesh, meat, deer'.
KW ji`lu`
Ku. jilu `flesh'.

Kh. y~O~lE chata `honey-comb'.
Sa. JElE `a large bee (%Apis_dorsata,_Fabr.)'.
  ~ JElE chata `honey-comb'.
Mu. nili(H)
  ~ lili(N)
  ~ lElE(N) `a large bee (%Apis_dorsata,_Fabr.)'.
Ku. nili `large bee'.

``^long, ^tall'':
So. jAle `long, to be or grow long'.
  ~ jele(R) `long'.  !cf. la'aG `broad'.
  ~ AloG? deep
Kh. jElO'b
  ~ jhElO'b `long'.
  ~ jhalOG
  ~ jalOG
  ~ jilOG `high'.
  ~ jElhOm `tall'.
  ~ sElOG
  ~ selhOG `deep'.
Ju. jaliG `tall'.
Sa. jeleJ `length, long, tall'.
  ~ jhAl `length, long, tall, lengthen'.
Mu. jiliJ
  ~ jiliG `long, tall'.
  ~ salaGgi `tall, high, to heighten'.
Ho jiliG `long'.
Bh. jiliG `long'.
KW ji`li`J
  ~ ji`li`G
Ku. ghiliG `long'.
|HJP breaks up this set into subsets having original prefixes with j or s plus +, a, and E, with vowel harmony to the second vowel in some cases.

So. beD(R) `to suck, drink, sip'.
Kh. jO'b `to suck'.
Sa. jEmE'd(M)
  ~ jEmbE'd `to sip, suck'.
Mu. jEmE'd(M)
  ~ jEmbEd(M) `to suck'.
  ~ cEpE'd
  ~ cEpO'd `to suck, lick'.
Ho cepe'd `to suck, lick'.
Bh. copod `to suck, lick'.
KW jEmEd
  ~ jEmbEd

Sa. jErE `gum'.
Mu. jErE `gum'.

Sa. jErEd `to connect'.
Mu. jErEd `to connect'.
KW jErEd
|Cf. jERka `to connect'.

``^connect; ^sticky'':
Sa. jErka `to connect; sticky'.
Mu. jErka `to connect; sticky'.
KW jErka
|Cf. jErEd `to connect'.

``^loosely woven'':
Kh. jhEntu
  ~ jEntu
  ~ jintu `mat (made of date leaf)'.
Sa. jhaJjra `sieve-like, perforated, full of holes, loosely woven'.
Sa. jhANTi `wattle, a fence made of branches fixed in the ground, saplings'.
Sa. jiJri `a watering pot (with holes), loosely plaited, wickered, a fish-trap'.

Kh. jhamar jhOmOr `ding-dong, the sound of bells'.
Sa. jhamar jhOmOr `heavily (rain)'.
Sa. jhamur jhumur `the sound of small globular bells with bits of metal or stones inside'.
Sa. jhOmOr jhOmOr `with a tinkling sound'.

Sa. jhampa `shade'.
Mu. jampa `shade'.
KW jhampa
  ~ jampa

So. jakin `all'.
Kh. jhaki
  ~ jhaRi
  ~ jhari `all'.
Sa. jhAR `constantly, continually, always'.

Kh. yu'.yu? `open'.  !Joh.1,51
Kh. yu?
  ~ iyu? `to open'.
Kh. yukhO? `he opened'.
Sa. jhi'j `open, to open'.
Mu. ni'j `to open'.
Bh. ni'i `open'.
Ku. ni'j
  ~ ne'j `to open'.

Sa. jhik `porcupine'.
Mu. jiki `porcupine'.
KW jhiki
  ~ jiki

So. kAnjiG/ jiG `the Indian porcupine (%Hystrix_leucura)'.
Kh. jiGrai `the Indian porcupine (%Hystrix_leucura)'.
Sa. jhi~k `the Indian porcupine (%Hystrix_leucura)'.
Mu. jiki `the Indian porcupine (%Hystrix_leucura)'.
Ho jiki `the Indian porcupine (%Hystrix_leucura)'.
Bh. jik `the Indian porcupine (%Hystrix_leucura)'.
Ku. jikria
  ~ jekra `the Indian porcupine (%Hystrix_leucura)'.

Sa. ji `to smell'.
Mu. ji `to smell'.
KW ji

So. Ju.Ju(R)
  ~ Ju `to smell'.
Gu. su:r `to smell'.
Kh. ju~i~ `to smell'.
Sa. ji `to smell, sniff, smell at'.
Mu. ji:
  ~ ji~: `to sniff something in order to scent'.
Mu. ji `to smell'.
Ho ji `to smell'.
Bh. ji `to smell'.

Sa. jia `grandmother'.
Mu. jia `grandmother'.
KW jia

So. yU.yU(R) `grandmother'.
Gu. yiyya `grandmother'.
Kh. Ayaya `grandmother'.  ! yaya
  ~ iaia
Sa. jiA `grandmother'.
Mu. jia
  ~ jiaG `grandmother'.  !voc. eaG

``^white_^ant, ^termite'':
Sa. Jidir `white ant'.
Mu. nidir `white ant'.
KW Jidir
  ~ nidir

``^move on buttocks'':
Sa. jiki `to move on one's buttocks'.
Mu. jiki `to move on one's buttocks'.
KW jiki

``^flesh, meat'':
Sa. jil `flesh, meat'.
Mu. jilu `flesh, meat'.
KW jilu

``^sip??, slip??'':
Sa. jilEd `to sip'.  !also glossed slip??  Neither in Campbell.
Mu. jilad `to sip'.  !also glossed slip??
KW jila`d

So. jElu/ jEl `flesh, meat'.
Go. tsisi:l
  ~ tsi:l `flesh'.
Gu. tseli `flesh'.
Re. seli `flesh'.
Mu. jilu `meat, flesh, deer'.
Bh. jilu `meat, flesh, deer'.
Ku. jilu `flesh'.

Sa. JindA `night'.
Mu. nida `night'.
Ho nida `night'.
Bj. nidha `night'.
Bh. nida `night'.

``^white_^ant, ^termite'':
Kh. tO'bDir `white ant'.
Sa. Jindir `a kind of white ant (%Termes_bellicosus)'.
Mu. nindir(H)
  ~ nidir(N) `white ant (%Termix_voratrix)'.
Ho nidir `white ant (%Termix_voratrix)'.
Ku. nindir `white ant (%Termix_voratrix)'.

Sa. Jir `to run'.
Mu. nir `to run'.
KW Jir
  ~ nir

So. yer, yIr, yir, er, Ir, ir(R) `to run, to go away'.
Go. yavu(V) `to run'.
Kh. yar `to flee, run away'.
Sa. Jir `to run away, to flee'.
Mu. nir `to run away, to flee'.
Ho nir `to run away, to flee'.
Ku. niri
  ~ niru `to run away, to flee'.
Na. e:r-e `to go'.  ! e:r-i `went well??'.

Sa. -JO? `for a while'.
Mu. -JO? `for a while'.
  ~ -nO?  !sic

Sa. jO? `to sweep'.
Mu. jO? `to sweep'.
KW jO?

So. jO `to sweep'.
  ~ j=An=O `a broom'.
Gu. so: `to sweep, Gu. sok to sweep'.  !Gu. sokta:ni `I will sweep'.
Kh. jO? `to sweep'.
  ~ jOnO? `broom'.
Sa. jO? `to sweep'.
  ~ jOnO? `broom'.
Mu. jO? `to sweep'.
  ~ jOnO? `broom'.
Ho jo? `to sweep'.
  ~ jO? `broom'.
Bh. jo? `to sweep'.
  ~ jono? `broom'.
Ku. jukari `to sweep'.
  ~ junu `a broom'.

So. jOD `to smear, to rub, to anoint, to paint one's face'.
Kh. jO'D `to wipe'.
Sa. jO'd `to stroke, rub, wipe off'.
Mu. jO'd `to wipe off'.
Ho jO'd `to wipe off'.
Bh. jO'd `to wipe off'.

Sa. jO `fruit'.
Mu. jO `fruit'.
|Cf. Sa. siJjO : Mu. siJju `kind of fruit', i.e. KW siJjO`; cf. So. jO'O/ jO fruit'.

So. jO'O
  ~ A-jO `fruit'.
Go. jo `fruit'.
Sa. jO `fruit'.
Mu. jO `fruit'.
Bh. jo `fruit'.
Ku. jo `fruit'.

Sa. jObE `to get wet'.
Mu. jObE `to get wet'.

Sa. jOd `to wipe'.
Mu. jOd `to wipe'.
KW jOd
|So. jOD(D) `to wipe'.

Sa. joha `cheek'.
Mu. joa `cheek'.
Ho joa `cheek'.
Bh. joha `cheek'.
Ku. joka `cheek'.

Sa. jOhar `to greet'.
Mu. jOhar `to greet'.
KW jOhar

Sa. jOjO `tamarind'.
Mu. jOjO `tamarind'.
|Reduplicated, jO.jO (DS).

So. soyo(R) `bitter'.
So. sUjU(R) `acid, pungent'.
Gu. so:sso:
  ~ susoka: `sour'.
Kh. rOjO'D `sour, to be sour'.
Sa. jOjO `acid, sour'.
Mu. jOjO `acid, sour'.
Bh. jojo `tamarind, sour'.

``^shake head'':
Sa. JOkOr `to shake one's head'.
Mu. nOkOr `to shake one's head'.
  ~ nOkOr

``^burn, light'':
Sa. jol `to burn, light'.
Mu. jul `to burn, light'.
KW ju`l

Sa. JOlhad `soot'.
Mu. nOlhad `soot'.
KW JOlhad
  ~ nOlhad

Sa. jOlOm `to smear'.
Mu. jOlOm `to smear'.
KW jOlOm
|Cf. jOd `to smear' and OJO? `to anoint'.

Sa. jOm `to eat'.
Mu. jOm `to eat'.
KW jOm

So. janr'um-Asi-se'eG(R) `right (not left)'.
So. janr'um-si(R) `the right hand'.
So. jum(R) `to eat, to lose, to suffer, to cost'.
Go. zum `to eat, to lose, to suffer, to cost'.
Gu. som
  ~ so:m `to eat, to lose, to suffer, to cost'.
Re. sum `to eat, to lose, to suffer, to cost'.
Kh. jOmEG `tasteful'.
Kh. jOmEGDa? `tasteful and juicy'.
Kh. jOnOm `right (opposite left)'.  E.g. jOnOm-ti? `the right hand'.
Kh. y~O? `to eat'.  !pret. y~OkhO? `ate, cf. V385'.
Ju. jim `to eat'.
Sa. jOm `food, to eat'.
Sa. jOmti
  ~ jOjOmti `the right hand'.
Sa. jOnOm `food, victuals, be eatable'.
Ma. jOm `food, to eat'.
Mu. jOm ti? `the right hand'.
Mu. jOm `food, to eat'.
Mu. jOnOm `food, victuals, be eatable'.
Ho jom `food, to eat'.
Bj. jum `to eat'.
Bh. jOm `food, to eat'.
Bh. jomti `the right hand'.
Dh. jOm `food, to eat'.
As. jom.jom `food'.
Kw. jom `food, to eat'.  ! iaRa
Ku. jome `to eat'.

Sa. jOnO? `broom'.
Mu. jOnO? `broom'.
KW jOnO?
|Analysis jO[nO]? (RDM) or j[On]O? (DS), from jO? `to sweep'.

So. joroD(R) `to drop, drip; So. jOra/ jOl `a stream, rivulet, river''.
Kh. jOrElDa? `eaves (of thatch)'.
  ~ jOtE `nasal secretion'.
  ~ jOTO'b `drop, to drop'.
Sa. jOrO `to drip, drop, trickle, leak'.
Mu. jOrO `leakiness (of a roof)'.
Bh. joro `to leak'.
Ku. joro `to leak'.

Sa. jOrO
  ~ cOrO `to leak'.
Mu. jOrO `to leak'.

Sa. jOTE'd `to touch'.
Mu. juTi'd `to touch'.
Ho juTid `to touch'.
Bh. joTed `to touch'.

Sa. Ju `to drink'.
Mu. nu `to drink'.
KW nu
  ~ Ju

Sa. JubA?
  ~ JumbA? `dusk, twilight, become dark'.
Mu. nuba? `darkness, dark'.
Ho nuba `darkness, dark'.  !prob. nuba?(HJP).
Bh. nuba `darkness, dark'.  !prob. nuba?(HJP).
@(V128, cf. V115,V280)

Sa. JuJu `breast; to suckle'.
Mu. nunu `breast; to suckle'.
  ~ nunu

So. AJ+m `name'.
Gu. imi `name'.
Kh. Jimi
  ~ y~i~mi `name'.
Sa. Jum
  ~ Ju[t]um `name, to name'.  !with t `infix'.
Mu. num
  ~ nutum `name, to name'.
  ~ lutum(H) `name'.
Ho numu
  ~ nutum `name'.
Bj. numu `name'.
Bh. nutum `name'.
Ku. jumu
  ~ jimu `name'.

``^light, set fire to'':
Sa. juNDi `to light, set fire to'.
Mu. juNDi `to light, set fire to'.
KW juNDi

Sa. Jur `to leak'.
Mu. nur `to leak'.
KW nur
  ~ Jur

``^wash clothes'':
Sa. Jurha `to wash clothes'.
Mu. nurha `to wash clothes'.
KW Jurha
  ~ nurha

Sa. Jutum `name'.
Mu. nutum `name'.
KW Jutum
  ~ nutum
| t is a no longer productive nominalizing infix (RDM).

So. loGoD `dark, darkness'.
  ~ luGGu `shadow, shade, shady place'.  !cf. V121
Gu. no:ji `carkness'.
Kh. nuDum `early before dawn'.
Sa. Ju~'d `darkness'.
  ~ Juhum `twilight, dusk'.
  ~ Jugum.Jugum `in the dark'.
  ~ hadam-hudum `dusk, dawn'.
Mu. nudum `twilight'.
@(V115, cf. V128, V390)

Kh. `dug, teat, udder, female's breast'.
Sa. Ju~ `to drink'.
  ~ `nipple of the breast, female breast, to suckle, suck'.
Mu. nu
  ~ nu: `to drink'.
  ~ `nipple of the breast, female breast, to suckle, suck'.
Ho nu `to drink'.
  ~ `nipple of the breast, female breast, to suckle, suck'.
Bh. nu `to drink'.
  ~ `nipple of the breast, female breast, to suckle, suck'.
Ku. nu `to drink'.

So. je'e `red'.  !Ram., as in je-yUG `the red sun'.
Kh. jOGgOr `red'.
Sa. J~'d `to dye red'.  !sic
Sa. jEGgE'd.jEGgE'd `crimson scarlet, bright red'.
Sa. JEGgE'f `bright red'.
Sa. jOrOG `deep red, scarlet'.
Mu. jEGgE'd
  ~ juGgu'd `deep redness, crimson color'.
Ho jeGga `red'.

So. Duj
  ~ laduj `to bend'.
Kh. Dui'j `to bend'.
Sa. kAbDu'j `ugly, bad-looking, small'.
Sa. kAbDuyu'd `crooked, bent, small and bad-looking'.  !y?
Ku. anuj `to bend'.

So. Duj
  ~ lAduj `to bend'.
Kh. Du'j `to bend'.
Ku. anuj `to bend'.  !-n- nasalized from d
Sa. kADu'j `ugly, bad-looking, small'.
  ~ kAbDuju'd `crooked, bent, small, bad-looking'.

Mu. ka `not'.
Ho ka `not'.
Bh. ka `not'.
Dh. ka `not'.
As. kuan
  ~ koan `no, not'.

Kh. kaDru `calf (of a buffalo)'.
Sa. kaDa `a buffalo'.
  ~ kADru `young male buffalo'.
Mu. kaDru
  ~ kaRru `young male buffalo'.
  ~ kiRi? `buffalo calf'.
  ~ keRa(H) `a buffalo'.
  ~ keDa(N) `a buffalo'.

Sa. kahu `crow'.
Mu. kahu? `crow'.
KW kahu?
  ~ kahu

``^speak, word'':
So. kaJ `to say, to tell'.
Kh. kayOm `to speak, tell, word'.
Mu. kaji `a word, to say, to tell'.
Ho kaji `a word, to say, to tell'.
Bj. kaji `a word, to say, to tell'.
Na. ka:i `to say'.
  ~ ka:in-i `said'.

``^next year'':
Sa. kalOm `next year'.
Mu. kalOm `next year'.
KW kalOm

Sa. kalOT `pullet'.
Mu. kaluTi `pullet'.
KW kalO`TE`
|Assuming the lost vowel in Santali to have been E; if it was i, then the reconstruction should be KW kalO`Ti (DS).

``^breadfruit tree'':
Kh. kaNThRa `bread-fruit or jack-fruit tree (%Artocarpus_integrifolia,_Linn.)'.
Sa. kaNThaR `bread-fruit or jack-fruit tree (%Artocarpus_integrifolia,_Linn.)'.
Mu. kaNTaRa
  ~ kaNTaRa-daru `bread-fruit or jack-fruit tree (%Artocarpus_integrifolia,_Linn.)'.

Sa. kapi `axe'.
Mu. kapi `axe'.
KW kapi

Sa. kApi `a battle-axe'.
Kr. kapi `a kind of axe'.
Ma. kapi `a kind of axe'.
Mu. kapi `a kind of axe'.
Ho kapi `a kind of axe'.
Bh. kapi `a kind of axe'.

``^tree sp.'':
Sa. karam `kind of tree'.
Mu. karam `kind of tree'.
KW karam

``^brush (^teeth)'':
Sa. karkad `to brush (teeth)'.
Mu. karkad `to brush (teeth)'.
KW karkad

Kh. kaTa `foot'.
Sa. kaTa `foot'.
Mu. kaTa `foot'.
Ho kaTa `foot'.
Bh. kaTa `foot'.

Kh. kaTi'j `some, a little'.  !cf. khORiG `short, a little'.
Sa. kATi'j `small, little, young'.
Mu. kaTi'j `very small, very little'.  !cf. huRi'j(H)
  ~ huDi'j(H)
  ~ huRiG(N)
  ~ huDiG(N) `very small very little'.
  ~ huDuRi'j(H)
  ~ huDuRiG(N) `intensive'.
@(V094, cf. V103)

Sa. kaTij `a little'.
Mu. kaTij `a little'.
KW kaTij

So. k+naD/ kad `crab'.
Kh. kaGkaRa `crab'.
Sa. kaTkOm `crab'.
Mu. kaTkOm
  ~ kaRkOm `crab'.
Ho kaTkom
  ~ kakom `crab'.
Ku. katkom
  ~ kekade `crab'.

Sa. katO `knife'.
Mu. katu `knife'.
KW katO`

Sa. kato `a curved knife'.
Mu. katu `a knife'.
|Tam. kAttI `knife'; Nep. kaTnU `to cut, cut off, kill'; Beng. kaTa; Or. kaTIba, Hi. kaTAna, Guj. kaTvU~, Skt. kartati, Pkt. kaTTai"(Tu).

Sa. kaTub `finger'.
Mu. kaTu? `finger'.
KW kaTu?
|For ? : b cf. also `hook' and `nod'.

Kh. kabai'j kubui'j `an accidental crookedness of the back'.
Kh. kaRba `the handle grip of a plough'.
Sa. ka~R~ba
  ~ ka~R~mba `the handle grip of a plough'.
Sa. kaba kobo `bent'.
Sa. kaba'j kubu'j `stoopingly'.
Mu. kaba-kObO
  ~ kabai'j-kubui'j
  ~ kabaG-kubuG
  ~ kabARa-kubARu
  ~ kiba-kaba `an accidental crookedness of the back'.
Mu. kaRba
  ~ kaRAba `the handle grip of a plough'.
Ho ka:ba: `the handle grip of a plough'.
Ku. homba `to bend down'.

``^tear, break; piece'':
Sa. kEca? `to tear, break; piece'.
Mu. kEca? `to tear, break; piece'.
KW kEca?
|Cf. cEca?.

Sa. kEcEd `to interrupt'.
Mu. kEsEd `to interrupt'.
KW kEsEd
  ~ kEcEd
|One of two examples of c : s; cf. M157 (RDM).

Sa. kEcEl `to winnow'.
Mu. kEcEl `to winnow'.
KW kEcEl

So. koDa(R)/ kol `the long-legged crane'.
Kh. kOlE? `heron, parrot'.
Sa. kereO'd `screamingly (of fowls), to scream'.
Mu. kea'd(H)
  ~ kerea'd(N) `the Roseringed Paroquet (%Palaeornis_torquatus)'.

``^bird sp.'':
Sa. kErkETa `kind of bird'.
Mu. kErkETa `kind of bird'.
KW kErkETa
|Analyzed kEr-kETa (RDM).

Sa. kETE'j `hard, firm, strong'.
Mu. kETE'j `hardness, hard'.
Ho keTej `hardness, hard'.  ! keTe

Sa. kETEj `hard'.
Mu. kETEj `hard'.

Sa. keTel `to startle'.
Mu. kiTil `to startle'.
KW ki`Ti`l

Sa. kewa `chin, to become worn (ploughshare)'.
Mu. kiwa
  ~ kiua `chin'.
Ho akia `chin'.

Sa. khadi `stick'.
Mu. khaDi
  ~ kaDi `stick'.
KW khadi
  ~ kaDi

``^divide, sell'':
Sa. khEja `to divide, sell'.
Mu. khEja
  ~ kEja `to divide, sell'.
KW khEja
  ~ kEja

Kh. kheoa
  ~ kheva
  ~ khewa `to row, oar'.
Mu. khe~o~T `fisherman, ferryman'.  ! keo~T(Bhad)

So. kulam(R)
  ~ kulAm `caste'.
Kh. khili `clan'.  !really kili
Sa. khil certain sub-septs have this as part of their designation.
Mu. kili `sept, totemistic sept'.

So. kinsa(R) `arrogance'.
So. kissa(R) `to move with great effort'.
Kh. khis `anger'.
Sa. khi~s `vexation, to be vexed, angry, displeased'.
Mu. khis `anger, enmity'.
Ku. khij `arrogance'.  !not certain gloss is right
Na. khij-i:-ja: (he) got angry

Sa. kho? `to cough'.
Mu. khu?
  ~ ku? `to cough'.
KW khu`?
  ~ ku`?

So. ko.ko(R) `cough'.
Gu. kuk.ku `cough'.
Kh. khu?
  ~ khu `to cough'.  !imper. khuge
Sa. kho? `a cough, to cough'.
Mu. ku? `a cough, to cough'.
Ku. ku `cough'.

``^porridge, broken grain'':
So. kuRu/ kul `porridge, cooked rice soaked in water, rice gruel'.  !Ram. has grits, coarse flour
Mu. khudi
  ~ kudi `broken grains'.

Sa. kicri'j `cloth, raiment, garment, to clothe'.
Mu. kicri
  ~ kicAri `cloth'.  !var. of lija??
Ho kicri `cloth'.
Bh. kicRi `cloth'.

Sa. kicrij
  ~ kicri `cloth'.
Mu. kiciri `cloth'.
KW kicirij
  ~ kiciri
|Or the medial vowel may be epenthetic (DS).

So. mabmar/ mar(M) `centipede'.
Kh. marmarDa? `scorpion'.
Sa. kidiJ marmar `a kind of centipede'.
Mu. marmar `a black scolopendra, a species of centipede, a scorpion'.
Ho marmar `scorpion, a kind of centipede'.
Bh. marmar `scorpion'.

``^daughter, sister-in-law'':
Sa. kimin `daughter, younger sister-in-law'.
Mu. kimin `daughter, younger sister-in-law'.
KW kimin

So. kUyen/ koj `daughter-in-law'.
Gu. kimeGgai `daughter-in-law'.
  ~ kida:-kui `widow'.
Re. kimi-on `daughter-in-law'.
Kh. kimin `daughter-in-law'.
Sa. kimin `daughter-in-law'.
Mu. kimin `daughter-in-law'.
Ho kimin `daughter-in-law'.
Bh. kimin `daughter-in-law'.

``^palm tree'':
Sa. kita `palm tree'.
Mu. kita `palm tree'.
KW kita

``^bird sp.'':
Sa. kitkir `kingfisher'.
Mu. kikir `kingfisher'.
KW ki(t)kir

``^plural, ^dual'':
So. ji `plural suffix'.  !plural-emphasizing particle in Un-ji
  ~ gul-ji
  ~ tim-ji, cf. yagi `three'.
  ~ bagu `two'.
Go. gi `plural suffix'.  !plural-emphasizing particle in un-gi `four'.
  ~ gul-gi `seven'.
  ~ tim-gi `nine'.
  ~ gal-gi `ten'.
Kh. ki `plural suffix'.
  ~ kiyar
  ~ kijar `dual suffix'.  !from * ki-bar
Ju. ki `plural suffix'.
  ~ kiar?? dual suffix !from * ki-bar
Sa. ko `plural suffix'.
  ~ kin `dual suffix'.  !from * ki-n
Ma. ko `plural suffix'.
  ~ kin `dual suffix'.  !from * ki-n
Mu. ko `plural suffix'.
  ~ kin(N)
  ~ kiG(N)
  ~ kiG(H) `dual suffix'.  !from * ki-n
Ho ko?? plural suffix
  ~ kiG(N) `dual suffix'.  !from * ki-n
Bh. ko `plural suffix'.
  ~ kin `dual suffix'.  !from * ki-n
Dh. ko `plural suffix'.
  ~ kin `dual suffix'.  !from * ki-n
Ku. ku `plural suffix'.
  ~ kiG `dual suffix'.  !from * ki-n

Sa. kOalE `rafter'.
Mu. kOali `rafter'.
KW kOalE`

Sa. kOca `corner'.
Mu. kOca `corner'.
KW kOca

Sa. kOcE `slant'.
Mu. kOcE `slant'.

``^bend knees'':
Sa. kOcOG `to bend one's knees'.
Mu. kucuG `to bend one's knees'.
KW kO`cO`G

``^fruit sp.'':
Sa. kod `kind of fruit'.
Mu. kuda `kind of fruit'.
KW ku`da

Sa. kOE `to beg'.
Mu. kOE `to beg'.

Sa. kOkOr `owl'.
Mu. kOkOr `owl'.
KW kOkOr
|Onomatopoeic? Reduplication of kOr? (DS).

So. kokoj(R)
  ~ kokta(R) `cock'.
Kh. kOkrO `cock'.
Sa. kOkOr `an owl'.
Mu. kOkOr(H)
  ~ kOkOrpeca(N)`the spotted owlet (%Athene_brama)'.
  ~ kOkOrecO? imitative word for a cock's crow
  ~ kOkrOcO `the cry of the fowl'.
Ho kokor `an owl'.

``^come, ^send'':
Gu. ol-(2) `G'.  !in olo(2) `come' ? from ol-a(2), also ulo(2) ?
GR Al-(2), ol-(2)
Gt. i-la(M) `come!'.
Sa. kol `to send'.
Mu. kul `to send'.
KW ku`l

``^put_on (a non-draped garment)'':
Gu. ol=(2), ol=jug-(2) `to put on (a non-draped garment)'.
GR Al=(2), ol=(2)

``^put_on (a garment)'':
Gu. oRi?(&)  [past oRi?-gu-niG(&)].
Re. oRig(&) `to put on (a garment)'.  [past oRig-o?-niG(&)].

``^brood, ^set (on eggs)'':
Gu. om-(2)
Re. om-(2)
GR Am-(2)
Gt. a~-(&,M) `to brood, to set (on eggs)'.
Gt. a~-hua-(M) `to set on eggs'.
So. Om-De-(My) `to wait for' (cf. De.De-(My) `id.')

So. a'am/ am(D) `arrow'.
Go. amon(Z) `bow, arrow'.
Re. o'om(BF)/ om(F) `arrow'.
Gt. ha~(C)
  ~ (a~)h-ha~(M) `arrow'.
Kh. kom(ABD) `arrow'.
 kOkkOm(K),, kOkOm(KMP) `arrow [KP]; arrow-point [P]'.  | kom.kom.
|Khs. kham, Sre kam, ~ kO-.

``^leave, ^abandon'':
Gu. om=tur-(2,&)
Re. on=tur-(2,&)
GR Am(2)
Gt. hantar-(&) `to leave, to abandon'.
So. OmDa-(L), umrEG-(L), amb+r-(Raigada) `to leave, to divorce'.

So. kumb+l/ kum `mouse'.  !Ram. says rat
  ~ jomb+r `to steal'.
Sa. kombRo `to steal, pilfer, thief, theft'.
Mu. kumRu
  ~ kumbRu `to steal, pilfer, thief, theft'.
  ~ jumbARi `greedy, covetous, gluttonous'.
Ho kombu `to steal, pilfer, thief, theft'.
Bh. kumbuRu `to steal, pilfer, thief, theft'.
  ~ jumRi `gluttonous'.
KW ku`mbRu`

Kh. kO~R~E~'j
  ~ kONDE'j `axe'.
Sa. kONDE'd
  ~ kONDE'j `bent, bowed, crooked'.
Mu. kONDE'j `the smaller kind of wood axe'.

``^abuse (verbally)'':
Gu. oJ-(&), on-(2)  [past o~y-o?-niG(&)].
Re. oJ-(&), oJo-(2) `to scold, to abuse verbally'.  [past o~y-o?-niG(&)].
GR AJ-(2)
Gt. wiG-(&,M) `to abuse, rebuke, scold'.  [past wiG-ke(&), fut. wiG-e(&)].
Gt. wiG-ha'(M) `to quarrel'.
So. kAJ-(DM) `to scold'.

``^stuff into mouth'':
Sa. kOpE
  ~ kOpEd `to stuff into one's mouth'.
Mu. kOpE
  ~ kOpEd `to stuff into one's mouth'.
  ~ kOpEd

Sa. kORa `male'.
Mu. kORa `male'.

Sa. kORam `chest'.
Mu. kuRam `chest'.
KW kO`Ram

Sa. kOsa `pulp'.
Mu. kOsa `pulp'.
KW kOsa

So. AsAr(D) `dry'.
Go. asar `to dry'.
Gu. vuso:l
  ~ usor(R4) `dry'.
Re. usar(RR) `dry'.
Kh. kOsOr `dry, to be dry, to wither'.
Mu. kOsOR~a~-ali `moisture of the soil not spreading as deep as the plough cuts, so that some of the earth that is thrown up is dry'.

So. sarO/ sar(D) `paddy'.
Kh. ko~sR~O~ pE? `rice prepared for making beer'.
Mu. kOsOR~a~
  ~ kOsO~R~a~ `rice or millet cooked for brewing'.
Mu. kOsR~a~ `to parboil rice for making beer'.

Kh. tE'j `to break'.  ! tEchO? `he has broken (e.g. Joh. 5,18)'.
Sa. kOTE'j `to hammer, beat, forge, rupture'.
  ~ OTE'j `to burst open, violently open out, split open'.
  ~ aRE'j `to tear, rend, split, burst'.
  ~ pETE'j `to break off with the fingers, nip off, snip off'.
  ~ sETE'j `to husk grain for the first time'.
Mu. kOTE'j `to hammer, to beat with a hammer'.
  ~ ORE'j `to crack, tear, rend, to split into pieces'.
  ~ OTE'J `to spring up (as when paddy grains are fried)'.
  ~ pETE'j `to twist and break, chaff'.
  ~ sETE'j `to husk grain for the first time'.
Ho oe `to crack, tear, rend, to split into pieces'.  !i.e. Ho o'j `from * oRe'j'.

Sa. kOTOG `to stop'.
Mu. kOTOG `to stop'.

Sa. kOyO? `to peek'.
Mu. kOyO? `to peek'.
KW kOyO?

Sa. kO~TrE~ `pillow'.
Mu. kOTNE `pillow'.

Sa. kuca `to bend'.
Mu. kuca `to bend'.
KW kuca
|Cf. kukuj (DS).

Kh. kuDa `berry'.
Mu. kuda `black berry'.

``^back yard'':
Sa. kuDam `back yard'.
Mu. kuNDam `back yard'.
KW kuDam
|The N is an irregularity due to the m in the morpheme (RDM).

So. kAnDoG `back'.  !So. kAnDoG-ban `behind, backwards'.
  ~ dUGgu `to be bent'.
  ~ kAruG(R) `back yard, courtyard of a building'.
Go. gidaG
  ~ ha:dumni:(V) `back'.
Re. gidaG `back'.
Kh. hiNDuG `to creep, to move, to stoop'.
  ~ kuNDa'b `back'.  ! kuNRa'b
Ju. kinap `back'.
Sa. kuDAm `the rear of the house, back side, behind'.
Mu. kuNDam `back part of the house'.
Ho kuNDam `back part of the house'.
@(V136, V367)

``^tell a story'':
Sa. kudum `to tell a story'.
Mu. kudum `to tell a story'.
KW kudum

Kh. kuhas `fog'.
Sa. kuhAs
  ~ khuAs `mist, haze'.
Sa. kuhRA `mist, fog'.
Mu. ko~a~si
  ~ ko~w~a~si
  ~ ko~R~a~si `fog, mist'.
Mu. kuhas
  ~ kuhasi `fog'.
Bh. kuhua
  ~ kuhura `fog, mist'.

``^fruit sp.'':
Sa. kuiNDi `kind of fruit'.
Mu. kuiNDi `kind of fruit'.
KW kuiNDi

Sa. kukmu `to dream; a dream'.
Mu. kumu `to dream; a dream'.
KW kumu
  ~ ku-kumu
|The Santali has an old intensifying affix (RDM), or is it due to haplology of a reduplicated form kumu.kumu? (DS).

So. gAnu#mte `a dream'.
So. gu"m
  ~ gu"mte `to dream'.
Gu. gunomti `a dream'.
Kh. mui `to dream'.
Sa. kukmu~ `a dream, to dream'.
Mu. kumu `a dream, to dream'.
Ho kumu `a dream, to dream'.
Bh. kumu `a dream, to dream'.

Sa. kukuj `to bend'.
Mu. kukuj `to bend'.
KW kukuj
|With intensifying infix (RDM); cf. kuca (DS).

Sa. kul `tiger'.
Mu. kul
  ~ kula `tiger'.
KW kul
  ~ kula

So. k+na/ k+D `tiger, leopard'.
Go. kula
  ~ kul
  ~ ku: `tiger, panther'.
  ~ aNDra kul `male tiger'.
Gu. gikkil `tiger, panther'.
Re. kisa: `tiger, panther'.
Kh. kiRO? `tiger (%Felis_tigris)'.
Ju. kilo `tiger (%Felis_tigris)'.
Sa. kul `tiger (%Felis_tigris)'.
Mu. kula `tiger (%Felis_tigris)'.  !Mu. kul only in village names.
Ho kula `tiger (%Felis_tigris)'.
Bj. kula `tiger (%Felis_tigris)'.
Bh. kula `tiger (%Felis_tigris)'.
Ku. kula `tiger (%Felis_tigris)'.

Sa. kulai `rabbit'.
Mu. kulai `rabbit'.
KW kulai

Gu. gilli `hare, rabbit'.
Sa. kulAi `the Bengal hare (%Lepus_ruficaudalus)'.
Mu. kulae `hare, rabbit'.
Ho kulai `hare'.
Kw. kula:hi `hare'.
Ku. kuali `hare, rabbit'.

Sa. kuli `to ask'.
Mu. kuli `to ask'.
KW kuli

Sa. kuli `to ask'.
Mu. kuli `to ask'.
Ho kuli `to ask'.
Bh. kuli `to ask'.

``maternal ^uncle'':
Sa. kuma `maternal uncle'.
Mu. kuma `maternal uncle'.
KW kuma

``^fish trap'':
Sa. kumbEd `fish trap'.
Mu. kumbad
  ~ kumbid `fish trap'.
KW kumba`d
  ~ kumbE`d

Sa. kuRi `woman'.
Mu. kuRi `woman'.
KW kuRi

So. kuru in kuru-tAm(R2) `beard'.  | tAm\ tO'OD `mouth'.
Re. kur in kur-tom(RR) `beard'.  | tom `mouth'.

Sa. kuRid `kite'.
Mu. kuRid `kite'.
KW kuRid

So. taG(R) `to press, thump, cuff, pierce'.
  ~ tuG(R) `to cuff'.
Kh. ThaGkOl `to knock'.
  ~ thOm `to smash'.
Sa. kuTAm `a blow, stroke, beat, hammer'.  !cf. kuTAsi `hammer'.
  ~ Thu? `to knock the head against something'.
  ~ Thu `to crack, to rupture'.
  ~ ThukrAu
  ~ Thokrao `to gainsay, contradict, oppose, threaten, to break off'.
Mu. tham
  ~ tam `to beat'.
  ~ kuTam `to hammer, to grind'.  !cf. kuTasi `hammer, kuTAna(H) `to macerate, crush''.
  ~ ThO
  ~ TO `to strike or hit the mark, as an arrow, to knock'.
Ho tam `hammer'.
Bh. kuTam `a blow, stroke, beat, hammer'.
@(V264, C437)

``^carry on back'':
Sa. kuTuG `to carry on one's back'.
Mu. kuTuG `to carry on one's back'.
KW kuTuG

Kh. kuw~a~r saheb `Mr. Kuwar'.  !Bage, Al. 144
Sa. ku~Ar `son of a king, prince, the second son of a Bhu~ya raja or zamindar, a bachelor, unmarried, single'.
Mu. ku~a~r `unmarried'.

So. `to make a thing pointed'.
  ~ `a digging stick (R), a pointed stick'.
  ~ lO `to hoe, cultivate, clear a hill for cultivation'.
  ~ lO.lO-ba `hill cultivation'.
  ~ lO-da(R) `to slice'.
Gu. lai `to dig'.
Kh. la'j `to slice'.
  ~ lae `to dig'.
Sa. la? `to put, pare, chip, clear from grass'.
  ~ la `to dig'.
Mu. la? `to pare wood with an axe, or the ground with a hoe'.
  ~ la `to dig'.
Ho la `to dig'.
Ku. la `to dig'.

So. ja'aD-loj(R) `bellyworm'.
So. kAm-puG(R)/ puG `belly, stomach, abdomen'.
So. onloiDa(R)
  ~ onlaida/ loj `the entrails, intestines'.
Gu. suloi `belly'.
Re. suloi `belly'.
Kh. la'j `belly'.
Kh. lai'j `belly'.  ! la'j
Kh. laibu gita? `to lie on the stomach, to lie prone'.
Kh. laidul `diarrhea'.
Kh. laikOsu `stomach-ache'.
Sa. la'j `stomach, belly'.
Ma. la'j `stomach, belly'.
Mu. lai'j-dul `diarrhea'.
Mu. lai'j-hasu `stomach-ache, belly-ache'.
Mu. lai'j `stomach, belly'.  ! la'j
Ho lai'j `stomach, belly'.
Bh. lahi'j `stomach, belly'.
Dh. lahi'j `stomach, belly'.
Kw. laj `stomach, belly'.
Ku. laj `stomach, belly'.
Na. popo
  ~ po:po: `belly'.

Sa. la
  ~ la? `to dig'.
Mu. la? `to dig'.
KW la?

Kh. loo
  ~ lOyO mu"de `to be tired'.  !Joh.4,6
Sa. labaG lubuG `leisurely trotting'.
Sa. lahke.lahke `slowly, gently, carefully'.
Sa. lamba'j lumbu'j `leisurely, slowly, to walk slowly, unhurriedly'.
Sa. lOhkE `slowly, gently'.
Sa. ThipOG ThOpOG
  ~ DEbE'j DEbE'j `exhausted'.
Sa. TimbA Tamba
  ~ TimbO'j TOmbO'j `slowly, wearily, fatigued'.
Mu. laba'.laba? `to flap, to wave up and down (giving an impression of weakness)'.
Mu. laban lubun `slowly (said of one walking)'.  !syn. tapa tupu
Ku. lawa: `to be tired'.

Kh. lebdha `to throw a stick'.
Sa. labda
  ~ lebda `to throw, cast, hurl'.
Mu. labda
  ~ lebda `to throw, cast, hurl'.

Sa. lad `to bake'.
Mu. lad `to bake'.
KW lad

Sa. lahEr `to peel'.
Mu. lahEr `to peel'.
KW lahEr

``^well done; overdo'':
Sa. lahud `well done; to overdo'.
Mu. lahud `well done; to overdo'.
KW lahud

Sa. laj `stomach'.
Mu. laj `stomach'.
KW laj

Sa. lakuj `elastic'.
Mu. lakuj `elastic'.
KW lakuj

``^creeper sp.'':
Sa. lama? `kind of creeper'.
Mu. lama? `kind of creeper'.
KW lama?

So. Dib-maD-Da(R)
  ~ Dim-maD-Da
  ~ Dib-maD
  ~ Dim-maD, DimaD `to close one's eyes, to sleep'.
So. lu"D(R)
  ~ luD
  ~ loD `to lie down, to sleep, to rest'.
So. pim-maD(R)
  ~ kim-maD `to wink, to blink'.
Go. dimma `to close one's eyes, to sleep'.
Gu. ledlemo: `to sleep'.
Re. le:mu: `to sleep'.
Kh. lEmE'D `sleep, to sleep'.  !infin. lEmE'Dna
  ~ lEmEnna
Ju. leber `sleep, to sleep'.  !from lebe'D
Sa. lambE'd `to crouch, bend down, hide oneself, couch'.
Mu. duRum `to lie down and sleep'.  !cf. V111

Gu. luddo: `to laugh, laughter'.
Kh. laDa `to laugh'.
Sa. landa `to laugh, laughter'.
Mu. landa `to laugh, laughter'.
Ho landa `to laugh, laughter'.
Bh. landa `to laugh, laughter'.
Ku. landa `to laugh, laughter'.

Sa. landub `to collapse'.
Mu. landub `to collapse'.
KW landub
|Cf. the verb dub `to sit'; first element unidentified (RDM).

``^eat up'':
Sa. lapEd `to eat up'.
Mu. lapED `to eat up'.
KW lapED

``^sharp; sharpen'':
Sa. lasEr `sharp; to sharpen'.
Mu. lasEr
  ~ lEsEr `sharp; to sharpen'.
KW lasEr

So. lam(R) `to spread, to extend, as creeping plants'.
So. lAnam(R) `the act of creeping, a creeping plant'.
So. lar(R) `to spread, to surround, to overflow'.
Kh. laNDam `bark of mohua (%Bauhinia_scandens)'.
Kh. laraG
  ~ lOraG `creeper'.
Kh. lATpATae `to creep (to grow)'.
Sa. laT paT `sticky, muddy, to roll in mud'.
Sa. laT paTao `to make muddy, to adhere, to roll in the mud'.
Mu. lama'-na~R~i~ `(%Bauhinia_Vahlii,_W._and_A.)'.
Mu. laTpaTao `rolled up and confused, to twist sthing over itself, as in rope making, of snakes and creepers'.
Mu. na~R~i~
  ~ naR~i~
  ~ nari `a creeper, climber, a twining or scandent plant'.
Mu. naNDi `creeper'.
Ho naii `creeper'.  !Bodd.

Kh. lata `hole, to make a hole'.
Sa. lat `a byplace, recess (in a forest)'.
Mu. lata `a cave, hole, den'.
Ho lata `cave, hole, den'.
Bh. lat `a byplace, recess (in a forest)'.

``^bite, bit'':
Sa. laTab
  ~ laDab `to bite; a bit'.
Mu. laTab `to bite; a bit'.
KW laTab
|Intervocalic voicing of T in this Santali variant (DS).

Sa. latar `below'.
Mu. latar `below'.
KW latar

``^bend back'':
Sa. laTij `to bend back'.
Mu. laTij `to bend back'.
KW laTij

Sa. laTum `to fold; a fold'.
Mu. laTum `to fold; a fold'.
KW laTum

``^hang down'':
Sa. laver `hanging down, to bend down or over, to hang over'.
Sa. lawa'.lawa? `dangling, hanging loosely, to carry or hold loosely'.
Sa. lawaG.lawaG `dangling, hanging loosely'.
Sa. lawar.lawar `dangling, to dangle, to flap'.
Sa. lemer.lemer `moving the lips'.
Sa. leRwa? `to incline to one side, bend down, hang loose, hang down, droop, wither (leaves)'.
Sa. leRwa.leRwa
  ~ leRwa liRvi
  ~ leRwa saRve `clumsy, lazy, feeble'.
Sa. leve.leve `to tremble with cold'.
Sa. lEvE `to loosen, get loose, tremble with cold'.
Sa. lEvEr.lEvEr `swaying, moving'.
Sa. lever.lever `to tremble with cold, to move the lips to speak'.
Sa. lewa?
  ~ lewaG `dangling, hanging down, to break, to dangle'.

Sa. lE `to dissolve'.
Mu. lE `to dissolve'.

So. lE'Em `to be melted or dissolved'.
  ~ lEm `to melt (tr.)'.
Kh. paghle
  ~ pagle `to melt'.  !IA loan (Hi. pighalana: `to melt)'.
Sa. lE `to dissolve, melt, become liquid'.
Mu. lE `to melt, dissolve'.
  ~ lea
  ~ leaG `dissolved, melted in water'.
Ku. pighlae `to melt'.  !IA loan

Sa. lEckEj `to squash'.
Mu. lEcEkEj
  ~ lEckEj `to squash'.
KW lEcEkEj

Kh. leca `lame, to walk like a lame man, limp'.
Sa. lEcO? `limping, lame on one foot'.
Sa. leJca `halt, limping'.
Mu. leca
  ~ leca.leca
  ~ leca-lici
  ~ leca-leci `a knock-kneed condition'.

``^left side'':
Sa. lEGga `left side'.
Mu. lEGga `left side'.
KW lEGga

Sa. lEJ `to move'.
Mu. lEG
  ~ lEJ `to move'.
  ~ lEJ

So. galo(R) `to slip'.
  ~ jalo(R) `to slip, to slide'.
Kh. jOlO'D `slippery, to slip'.  !cf. Kh. jOl `oil V198, also V189'.
Sa. lEjEr `soft, flabby (meat), thin (cloth)'.
  ~ lEJ-jer `slippery, slimy, smooth, sleek, oily, glib'.
Mu. jila'd `to slip, slippery'.
  ~ lEJjEr `weak'.
Ho jil ??
Bh. jijilat `to slip by the foot'.
Ku. solor ??

Sa. lEn `to press'.
Mu. lEn `to press'.
KW lEn

Sa. lENDEd `centipede'.  !Cf. lENDOG M094.
Mu. lENDad `centipede'.  !Cf. liNDuG M094.
KW lENDa`d

Sa. lENDOG `centipede'.  !Cf. lENDEd M080.
Mu. liNDuG `centipede'.  !Cf. lENDad M080.

Sa. leRve `to bend, deflect (as an edge of an implement), to sulk'.

Gu. lonk `abuse'.
Kh. lE'j `to abuse'.
Sa. lese(K) `to bite, snap at, abuse'.

Sa. lETO `stew'.
Mu. lETO `stew'.

``^bend down'':
Sa. lewa `supple, pliant, flexible, soft, to make or become supple or soft, to bend down'.
Mu. lewa `to sow in mud'.

So. laj(R)
  ~ lij
  ~ la'a'j
  ~ laJ/ laj
  ~ kaD `penis'.
Sa. li'j `penis, esp. of small boys'.
Sa. lO'j `penis'.
Mu. lOe'j
  ~ lOGgE'j `penis'.  ! lO'j
Ho loe `penis'.
Ku. la:j `penis'.

Sa. lOj `penis'.
Mu. lOj `penis'.
KW lOj

Sa. liGgi
  ~ liJji `to flow'.
Mu. liGgi
  ~ liJji `to flow'.  !palatal form cited only in M138
KW liGgi
|The second Santali form can be explained in terms of palatalisation (RDM).

So. leG.leG(R) `to be damp, to be dripping'.
Kh. lEG `to flow, to fly'.
Sa. liGgi
  ~ liJji `to flow gently, trickle, run'.
  ~ lEJ `to move, drag oneself on the stomach, crawl, creep'.  !Kuiper compares also Sa. laG.laG `with legs wide apart, spread one's legs (females)'.
  ~ lEGgE'd.lEGgE'd `wide, extensive, endless'.
Mu. liGgi `to flow, trickle, drop'.
Ho liGgi `to flow'.
Bh. liGgi `to flow'.

Sa. limbOd `to squeeze'.
Mu. limbud `to squeeze'.
KW limbO`d

Sa. lin `to press'.
Mu. lin `to press'.
KW lin

Kh. lisOe lOsOe `gently moving'.  !also written lIsoy losoy
Sa. lisO lOsO `lagging behind, to be delayed, to work slowly'.
Sa. lisoe lOsOe
  ~ liskOe lOskOe `with ample, fluttering clothes, flutter, flap (women's cloth)'.

Sa. liwEd `elastic'.
Mu. liud `elastic'.
KW liwE`d

Sa. lO.lO `heat'.
Mu. lO.lO `heat'.
KW lO.lO

Sa. lO `to burn'.
Mu. lO `to burn'.

Sa. lo `to serve'.
Mu. lu `to serve'.
KW lu`

Kh. lO'b `to be burnt'.
  ~ lOb.lOb `warm, hot'.
Sa. lO `to burn, to scald'.
  ~ lO.lO `to heat, hot, warm'.
Mu. lO `to burn, to scald'.
  ~ lO.lO `to heat, hot, warm'.
Ho lo `warm'.
Bh. lo? `to burn'.
  ~ lo.lo `hot, warm'.

``^serve up'':
So. ru(R) `to pour, to serve food or liquor'.
Kh. rO `to be scattered'.
Sa. lo `to draw (water, etc.), fetch, take out (food, etc.)'.
Mu. lu? `to ladle out, to deal out food'.
Ho lu `to draw (water, etc.), fetch, take out (food, etc.)'.

Sa. lOa `fig'.
Mu. lOa `fig'.
KW lOa

``^fig tree'':
So. loa `fig, fig tree'.
Kh. lua `fig, fig tree (%Ficus_glomerata_Roxb.)'.
Sa. loa `fig, fig tree (%Ficus_glomerata_Roxb.)'.
Mu. loa-daru `fig tree'.
  ~ loa `fig'.
Ho loa `fig, fig tree (%Ficus_glomerata_Roxb.)'.
Bh. loa `fig, fig tree (%Ficus_glomerata_Roxb.)'.
Ku. lawa `fig tree'.

Sa. lobo? `to husk; a husk'.
Mu. lupu? `to husk; a husk'.
KW lu`pu`?
  ~ lu`bu`?

Sa. lobo? `husk, bran, meal, flour'.
Mu. lupu? `husk of rice'.
Ho lupu? `husk of rice'.
Bh. lupu `husk of rice'.  !i.e. lupu?(HJP).

Kh. lucur `lip'.
Sa. lOc lOcO `protruding (underlip)'.
  ~ lOT lOTO `to swell (lips)'.
  ~ luTi `lip'.
Mu. lOc lOcO `to protrude the underlip as a sign of disagreement'.
  ~ lOcAkOr
  ~ lOcO"kOr
  ~ lOckOr
  ~ lacoRa
  ~ laco `lip'.
Ho loco `lip'.
Bh. laco `upper lip'.

``^flower sp.'':
Sa. lOdam `kind of flower'.
Mu. ludam `kind of flower'.
KW lO`dam

Gu. blo: `with, from'.
Kh. lO? `with, from'.
Sa. lOe `along with, together'.
Mu. lO? `with, along with'.
Ho lo `with, along with'.  !i.e. lO?

Sa. lOhad `to wet'.  !RDM says V2 is assimilated to V1??
Mu. lOhad `to wet'.
KW lOhad

Kh. Osu'd `to wet'.  !a different root, contaminating lOhO'd
Kh. su'd `wet, to be wet'.  !a different root, contaminating lOhO'd
Sa. lOhO'd `wet, moist, to wet, to get wet'.
Sa. lOsO'd `mud, mire, muddy, dirty'.
Mu. loa'd `to moisten'.
Mu. lOsO'd `mud, earth'.
Mu. lum `to wet, wet'.
Ho lOsO'd `mud, earth'.
Ho lum `to wet, wet'.

Sa. lOndOj `sunken'.
Mu. lunduj `sunken'.
KW lO`ndO`j

``^fall off, collapse'':
Sa. lOpa? `to fall off, collapse'.
Mu. lOpa? `to fall off, collapse'.
KW lOpa?

So. to(R) `to copulate'.
  ~ tOGba `to cohabit'.
Kh. tu
  ~ tug(B) `to copulate'.
Sa. loRo `to have sexual intercourse with'.
Sa. OtOG `to follow, follow in heat (cattle), pair with'.
  ~ OpOtOG
  ~ OptOG `to follow one another, be in heat'.
Mu. OtOG `to follow smb. physically, to copulate (used with reference to animals)'.
Ho do `to copulate??'.
Bh. otoG `to follow'.
  ~ optoG `to copulate, sexual intercourse'.

Sa. lOsOd `mind'.
Mu. lOsOd `mind'.
KW lOsOd

Sa. lOsOd `mud'.
Mu. lOsOd `mud'.
KW lOsOd

Sa. lOTOj `to twist'.
Mu. lOTOj `to twist'.

Go. lioG `lowland used for growing paddy'.
Gu. li:o:G `field'.
Kh. gO'jlO? `paddy field'.
Kh. OslO?
  ~ uslO? `land'.
Mu. lOyOG `low land or terraced rice fields'.
Bj. loyoG `low land or terraced rice fields'.

Sa. luman `silk'.
Mu. lumam
  ~ lumaG `silk'.  !sic; recte luman??
KW luman

Sa. lutur `ear'.
Mu. lutur `ear'.
KW lutur

So. lu'uD/ luD `ear'.
Go. lu'ud
  ~ lu'un
  ~ luvvu(V) `ear'.
Gu. lintir
  ~ nintiri
  ~ ritil `ear'.
Re. lintir `ear'.
Kh. lutur `ear'.
Ju. lutur
  ~ nutur `ear'.
Sa. lutur `ear'.
Ma. lutur `ear'.
Mu. lutur `ear'.
Ho lutur `ear'.
Bj. lutur `ear'.

Sa. ma? `to cut'.
Mu. ma? `to cut'.
KW ma?

``^joint, ^bamboo'':
So. mADmAD `joint'.
Sa. ma'd `bamboo'.
Mu. ma'd `bamboo'.
Ho ma'd `bamboo'.
Bh. ma'd `bamboo'.
Tu. ma'd `bamboo'.
Ku. mat `bamboo'.
KW mad

Kh. Enma `this year'.  !gen. Enmag-a?
Sa. mah kalom `three years ago'.
Mu. maha(H)
  ~ maa(N) `days of a definite series, last year'.
Bh. maha `last year'.

``^Mahle tribe'':
Sa. mahlE `name of a tribe, the Mahle'.
Mu. mahli `name of a tribe, the Mahle'.
KW mahlE`

Kh. mONDa `cold (disease)'.
Sa. manda
  ~ anda `a cold'.
Mu. manda `cold, coryza, catarrh'.
Ho manda `cold, coryza, catarrh'.
Bh. manda `cough'.

So. mara/ mar `peafowl'.
Kh. mara `peafowl'.
Sa. mara? `peafowl'.
Mu. mara? `peafowl'.
Ho mara? `peafowl'.
Ku. mara `peafowl'.

Sa. marag `big'.
Mu. maraG `big'.

So. mArAG `to grow'.
Sa. maraG `large, big, great'.
Mu. maraG `large, big, great'.
Ho maraG `large, big, great'.
Bj. maraG `large, big, great'.
Bh. maraG `large, big, great'.

Kh. marca `fallow (land)'.
Sa. marca `bare, physically poor, deteriorated, puny'.
Sa. narca `unfertile, exhausted (soil)'.
Mu. Marca `fallow, unploughed, untilled'.

``^old, ancient, mature'':
Sa. marE `old, ancient, mature'.
Mu. mari `old, ancient, mature'.
KW marE`

Sa. marsal `light; to be light'.
Mu. marsal `light; to be light'.
KW marsal
|Cf. arsal `id.'.

Sa. mayam `blood'.
Mu. mayOm `blood'.
KW mayOm

So. miJam/ mAJ `blood'.
Go. miyam `blood'.
Gu. ia:m
  ~ jiJam `blood'.
Re. mia:m `blood'.
Kh. EGgam
  ~ eJam
  ~ iy~am
  ~ iy~a~m `blood'.
Ju. iyam `blood'.
Sa. ma~y~a~m `blood, to bleed'.
Mu. maeom
  ~ ma~y~Om `blood'.  !i.e. may~om(HJP).
Ho mayom `blood'.
Bj. myum `blood'.  !i.e. mayum(HJP).
Bh. mayOm `blood'.

``^day after tomorrow'':
Sa. mEaG `day after tomorrow'.
Mu. mEaG `day after tomorrow'.

``^day after tomorrow'':
Kh. mEGga `day after tomorrow'.
Ju. miaG `day after tomorrow'.
Sa. meaG `day after tomorrow'.
Mu. meaG `day after tomorrow'.
Ho meaG
  ~ miaG `day after tomorrow'.
Bh. meaG `day after tomorrow'.
Ku. miyaG `day after tomorrow'.
Kh. tumbO? `day, twelve hours'.

Sa. mEna? `to be'.
Mu. mEna? `to be'.
KW mEna?
|Analyzed mEn-a? M119..

Sa. mena?
  ~ mena `to be'.
Mu. mena? `to exist, to be, to be present'.  !as opposed to banO'a
Ho mena? `to be'.
Na. imni `to be'.

``^fruit sp.'':
Sa. mEral
  ~ mErEl `kind of fruit'.
Mu. mEral
  ~ mErEl `kind of fruit'.
KW mEral
  ~ mErEl
|Also reconstructed as mEra`l M123..

Sa. mErOm `goat'.
Mu. mErOm `goat'.
KW mErOm

So. k+mmED/ mED `goat'.
Go. kinme:
  ~ kinme:n `goat (%Capra_hircus)'.
Gu. gime `goat'.
Re. gime `goat (%Capra_hircus)'.
Kh. mErOm `goat'.
Ju. mErOm `goat (%Capra_hircus)'.
Sa. mErOm `goat (%Capra_hircus)'.
Ma. mErOm `goat (%Capra_hircus)'.
Mu. mErOm `goat (%Capra_hircus)'.
Ho mErOm `goat (%Capra_hircus)'.
Bh. mErOm `goat (%Capra_hircus)'.
Dh. mErOm `goat (%Capra_hircus)'.
Kw. mErOm `goat (%Capra_hircus)'.

So. mO'OD/ mAD `eye'.
Go. man
  ~ mu:
  ~ ma:(V) `eye'.
Gu. mo: `eye'.
Re. m'o: `eye'.
Kh. mO'D
  ~ mO~'D `eye'.
Ju. e-mor `eye'.
Sa. mE~'d `eye'.
Ma. mE'd `eye'.
Mu. mE'd
  ~ mE~'d `eye'.
Ho me'd `eye'.
Bj. me'd `eye'.
Bh. mE'd `eye'.
Dh. mE~'d `eye'.
Kw. mE~'d `eye'.
Ku. met `eye'.  !i.e. me~d(HJP).

Sa. mE~R~hE~'d `iron'.  ! mE~RhE~d(M).
Ma. mErhE'd `iron'.
Mu. mERE'd `iron'.
  ~ mE~R~E~'d `iron'.  ! mENhEd(M).
Ho meD `iron'.
Bj. merhd(Hunter) `iron'.

So. Aboi(R)
  ~ Abo
  ~ bo
  ~ boyyo
  ~ boi
  ~ AmUi
  ~ mUi/ mi'd
  ~ mid `one'.
Go. boi `one, one single'.
Go. bo:yi(V) `one, one single'.
Gu. mui
  ~ mui-ro
  ~ bui
  ~ muyi `one, one single'.
Re. mui `one, one single'.
Kh. mOiG
  ~ mOiJ
  ~ jOyO'D
  ~ mOi'j
  ~ mOi
  ~ mOyOG `one'.
Kh. muDu `alone, only, single'.
Ju. min
  ~ muiND
  ~ mui
  ~ mi
  ~ minna `one, one single'.
Sa. mi'd `one, one single'.
Ma. mi'd `one, one single'.
Mu. miya'd
  ~ mia'd
  ~ mOya'd
  ~ mOjO'd
  ~ mO'd
  ~ mi'd `one, one single'.
Ho mi
  ~ mid
  ~ miad `one, one single'.
Bj. moy `one, one single'.
Bh. mi'd
  ~ miA'd `one, one single'.
Dh. mi'd
  ~ miA'd
  ~ miJA'd `one, one single'.
As. mi:ad `one, one single'.
Kw. mi
  ~ mi'd
  ~ mia'd `one, one single'.
Ku. miya~:
  ~ mia `one, one single'.
Na. bidi: `one, one single'.

Sa. mid `one'.
Mu. mid
  ~ miad `one'.
KW mid
  ~ miad

Sa. miru `parrot'.
Mu. miru `parrot'.
KW miru

Sa. mi~hu~ `calf, a child (figuratively)'.
Ho miu `calf, a child (figuratively)'.

So. moDa(R)/ mol `mist, fog'.
So. umuD(R)
  ~ Umud/ mod
  ~ mUd `smoke, fumes'.
Gu. munmu:so: `smoke'.
Kh. mO? `smoke'.
Mu. mO?
  ~ mO~? `filled with smoke, to fill with smoke'.

Sa. mOca `mouth'.
Mu. mOca `mouth'.
KW mOca

So. tO'OD/ tAm `mouth'.
Go. toD(RR) `mouth'.
Gu. tummo: `mouth'.
Re. tom `mouth' in kur-tom(RR) `beard'.  !CF
Kh. tOmO"d `mouth'.
Ju. tamar
  ~ tamon
  ~ tamoni
  ~ tomor `mouth'.
Sa. moca `mouth'.
Ma. moca `mouth'.
Mu. moca `mouth'.
Bh. moca `mouth'.
Dh. moca `mouth'.
Ku. cabu `mouth'.
Ku. mace `mustache'.  !Mw

Sa. mOkOJ `to finish'.
Mu. mukuJ `to finish'.
KW mO`kO`J

Sa. mOkOJ `to hate'.
Mu. mukuJ `to hate'.
KW mO`kO`J

Sa. molo `to appear (e.g. new moon)'.
Mu. mulu? `to appear (e.g. new moon)'.
KW mu`lu`?

Sa. mOlOG `forehead'.
Mu. mOlOG `forehead'.

Sa. mOrOd `smoky'.
Mu. mOrOd `smoky'.
KW mOrOd

Sa. mOrOj `sour'.
Mu. mOrOj `sour'.
KW mOrOj

Sa. mO~RE~ `five'.
Mu. mONE `five'.

So. monloi(R)
  ~ molloi
  ~ mUnloi `five'.
Go. mUnloi
  ~ monloi `five'.
Go. manule:i(V) `five'.
Gu. mallai `five'.
Gu. manle:i(B)
  ~ mullai `five'.
Re. molloi `five'.
Kh. mOlOe `five'.
Sa. mO~R~E~ `five'.
Ma. mOrE
  ~ mOreya `five'.
Mu. mO~R~E~
  ~ mO~R~O~e
  ~ mO~R~E~a `five'.
Mu. mO~R~O~ea(H) `five'.  !acc. to Nottrott monea, i.e. moNea `or moR~ea'.
Ho moya, mo~ya `five'.
Bj. monaya `five'.
Bh. mO~R~E~
  ~ mO~R~E~a `five'.
Dh. mO~R~E~
  ~ mO~R~E~a `five'.
Ku. mono `five'.  !adj.
Ku. monoi
  ~ monoiya `five'.  !subst.
Mw. maneiku `five'.

So. mujja/ muj `ant (of any species)'.  !cf. muj.muj/ muj `pimple'.
Kh. mu'jDa? `ant'.
Sa. mu'j `ant'.
Mu. mui'j `ant'.
Ho mui `ant'.
Bj. mue `ant'.
Bh. mu'j
  ~ mui `ant'.

Sa. mu `nose'.
Mu. mu `nose'.
KW mu

``^fish trap'':
Sa. mucu `fish trap'.
Mu. mucu `fish trap'.
KW mucu

Sa. muj `ant'.
Mu. muj `ant'.
KW muj

So. muG `to begin'.  !dial.
Kh. mu? `to come out'.  ! m=un=u'siG `the east'.
  ~ mu'-rEl `to rise (moon, stars)'.
Mu. munu `beginning'.
Bh. munu `beginning'.

``^tree sp.'':
Kh. murun (coralla of) mohua tree (%Bassia_latifolia)
Sa. muru'd `a small tree (%Butea_frondosa,_Roxb.)'.
Mu. muru'd `a small tree (%Butea_frondosa,_Roxb.)'.
Bh. murud `a small tree (%Butea_frondosa,_ Roxb.)'.

``^tree sp.'':
Sa. murub `kind of tree'.
Mu. murud `kind of tree'.
KW murud
  ~ murub
|The b `in Santali prob. due to labial assimilation' (RDM).

Sa. murum `nilgai (species of large wild cattle)'.
Mu. murum `nilgai (species of large wild cattle)'.
KW murum

Sa. mutul `center post'.
Mu. mutul `center post'.
KW mutul

So. mu'u/ mu `nose'.
Go. mu~
  ~ mun `nose'.
Go. muvvu(V) `nose'.
Gu. mi `nose'.
Gu. mi:(B) `nose'.
Re. se:-mi
  ~ mi `nose'.
Kh. mu~
  ~ rOmOG `nose'.
Sa. mu~ `nose'.
Ma. mu~ `nose'.
Mu. mu~
  ~ mu
  ~ mu~hu~
  ~ muhu `nose'.
Ho mua `nose'.
Bh. mu~ `nose'.
Dh. mu~ `nose'.
Kw. mu~ `nose'.
Ku. mu `nose'.

Sa. na- `this'.
Mu. na- `this'.
KW na-

Sa. naha? `now'.
Mu. naha? `now'.
KW naha?

Sa. nahEl `plough'.
Mu. nahEl `plough'.
KW nahEl

``elder ^sister'':
Sa. naJa `elder sister'.
Mu. nana `elder sister'.
KW naJa

Sa. naJjOm `witch'.
Mu. najOm `witch'.
KW najOm
|Again the Santali nasal due to final m; perhaps related to jOm `to eat', but if so the first morpheme is unidentified (RDM); reconstructed as KW nam-jOm (M107), but wo explanation.

Sa. nakij `to comb; a comb'.
Mu. nakij `to comb; a comb'.
KW nakij

Sa. nalha `wage'.
Mu. nalha `wage'.
KW nalha

Sa. napaE `good'.
Mu. napaE `good'.
KW napaE

``^wash head'':
Sa. naRka `to wash one's head'.
Mu. naRka `to wash one's head'.
KW naRka

So. nam
  ~ nAmi(M)
  ~ nAmijJEn(M) `at present, just now'.
Sa. na~ha~?
  ~ naha? `at present, just now'.
Mu. naa?(H)
  ~ naha?(N) `at present, just now'.
Ho na
  ~ na? `at present, just now'.
Ku. naka `at present, just now'.

``^creep; creeper'':
Sa. na~Ri~ `to creep; a creeper'.
Mu. naNi `to creep; a creeper'.
KW naNi

``^fix a date'':
Sa. nENDa `to fix a date'.
Mu. nENDa `to fix a date'.

``^time, appointment'':
Kh. neDa `time, hour'.
Sa. neNDa `to fix or appoint a time'.
Mu. nENDa(H)
  ~ neDa(N)
  ~ neRa(N) `the fixing of a date'.
Bh. neNDa
  ~ neRa `appointed time'.

``^that much'':
Kh. hOmne `that much, that many'.
Sa. ni-min `so much'.
Sa. ti-min `how many'.
Mu. cimin `how many'.
Mu. cimnaG `how much'.
Mu. imin
  ~ amin `this, like this, that much'.
Mu. nimin `this much'.
Ho cimin `how many'.
Ho cimnaG `how much'.
Ho imin
  ~ amin `this, like this, that much'.
Ho nimin `this much'.
Bh. ciminaG `how much'.
Bh. nimin
  ~ niminaG `so much'.

So. p+D `mushroom'.  !CF of bAti
Kh. u'D `mushroom'.
Sa. o'd `mushroom, toadstool'.
Mu. u'd `mushroom'.
Ho u'd `mushroom'.
Tu. ut `mushroom'.
Ku. ut `mushroom'.

``^take out of water'':
Sa. Oar `to take out of water'.
Mu. Oar `to take out of water'.
KW Oar

``^take out'':
Sa. OcO? `to take out'.
Mu. OcO? `to take out'.

``^hump of a bull'':
Sa. ocod `hump of a bull'.
Mu. ucud `hump of a bull'.
KW u`cu`d

``^take out'':
Sa. oDo? `to take out'.
Mu. uduG `to take out'.
KW u`du`?
  ~ u`du`G
|This ? : G correspondence supports the interpretation of ? as g (RDM).

``^carry a child'':
Re. og-(2)
GR Ag-(2), og-(2)
Gt. o-(&) `to carry a child in a cloth'.  [past Oo?ke, fut. oo?e].

``^wind yarn'':
Gu. og=da'-(2)  [?as monosyll ?].
Re. og=(2), og=rag-(2) `to wind yarn'.
GR Ag=(2)

Sa. OG `to blow'.
Mu. OG `to blow'.

Sa. OhOj `potsherd'.
Mu. OhOj `potsherd'.

Gu. oj-(2,3)  [imp. phonetic oy'(&)].
Re. oj-(2,3)  [imp. oy'(&), prohib. a-oys-o?(&)].
GR Aj-(2,3)
Gt. hwe'(3,&)  `to reap'.
So. Aj(DM) `to pick greens'.

Sa. OjO? `to anoint'.
Mu. OjO? `to anoint'.

Sa. ojo `boil'.
Mu. uju `boil'.
KW u`ju`

Sa. oko `to hide'.
Mu. uku `to hide'.
KW u`ku`

Kh. uku'b `to lie in wait'.
Sa. oko `hiding, concealing, secreting, secret, to hide, conceal'.
Mu. uku `to conceal, to hide'.
Ho uku `to conceal, to hide'.
Bh. uku `to conceal, to hide'.
Ku. uku `to conceal, to hide'.

``^moldy; mold'':
Sa. ol `moldy; mold'.
Mu. ul `moldy; mold'.
KW u`l

Sa. Ol `to write'.
Mu. Ol `to write'.

So. Ola/ Ol `leaf'.
Go. o:la: `leaf'.
Gu. o:la:
  ~ volla: `leaf'.
Re. o:la:
  ~ ula: `leaf'.
Kh. ula? `leaf'.
Sa. Ol `to write'.
  ~ palha `leaf (fresh or old), get leaves'.
Mu. Ol `to write'.
  ~ palhao `sprouting of new leaves after the branch of a tree has been cut'.
Ho ol `to write'.
Ku. ol `to write'.

Sa. Omba? `to kneel'.
Mu. Omba? `to kneel'.
KW Omba?

Kh. homba `to stoop'.
Sa. omba? `to bend down on all fours'.
Mu. hOmbO? `to fall forwards'.
Ho omba? `to stoop'.

Kh. On `to plant'.
Sa. OmOn `to bring forth, come up, sprout, germinate'.
Mu. OmOn `to bring forth, come up, sprout, germinate'.
Ho omon `to bring forth, come up, sprout, germinate'.
Bh. omon `to grow, spring up'.
Ku. umun `to grow, spring up'.

Sa. ONDga `headhunter'.
Mu. ONDka
  ~ ONDOka `headhunter'.
  ~ ONDOka  !latter for orig. ONDOga M129
|Voicing of k in Santali by assimilation to the preceding voiced obstruent (RDM).

Sa. Opad `shoot'.
Mu. Opad `shoot'.
KW Opad

``^watch, ^guard'':
Gu. or-(2,&)  [past or-o?-niG(&)].
GR Ar-(2), or-(2)
Gt. hur-(&)  [past hur-ke(&), fut. hur-e].
So. OrOl-(L) `to watch, to guard'.  (cf. Ol-gOb-(L) `to sit awhile', gOb-(L) `to sit')

Sa. Or `to drag'.
Mu. Or `to drag'.

Sa. ORa? `house'.
Mu. ORa? `house'.

Kh. O? `house'.  !gen. oga?
Sa. oRa? `house, home, family'.
Mu. oRa? `a house, a building'.
Ho oa? `a house, a building'.
Bj. ora: `a house, a building'.  !i.e. oRa?(HJP).
Bh. oRa: `a house, a building'.  !i.e. oRa?(HJP).
Ku. u:ra: `a house, a building'.
Na. awa:r
  ~ a:wa:r `a house, a building'.

Sa. ORE `bird'.
Mu. ORE `bird'.

``^tear off'':
Sa. OREj `to tear off'.
Mu. OREj `to tear off'.

Sa. OrOG `to blow'.
Mu. OrOG `to blow'.
|Clearly this is related to OG to blow, but the infix R (sic!??) is unidentified (RDM).

Sa. Osar `wide'.
Mu. Osar `wide'.
KW Osar

Sa. oso? `thin; to be thin'.
Mu. usu? `thin; to be thin'.
KW u`su`?

So. usuG(R) `to be inclined, to fall to one side, to be tilted, to stumble'.
Kh. usuG `to injure (by witchcraft), to make weak'.
Sa. oso? `thin, lean, emaciated, pulled down'.
Mu. usu? `to be tired, weak, thin'.
Ho usu `lean'.  !i.e. usu?(HJP).
Bh. usu `lean'.  !i.e. usu?(HJP).
Ku. usu `to become thin'.

Sa. Ot `earth'.
Mu. OtE `earth'.

Sa. Ot `soil, earth, ground, floor'.
Mu. Ote `soil, earth, ground, floor, field, land'.
Ho ote `soil, earth, ground, floor, field, land'.
Bj. ote `soil, earth, ground, floor, field, land'.
Bh. ote `soil, earth, ground, floor, field, land'.
Ku. ote
  ~ wate: `earth, ground'.
Mw. ote
  ~ wote `earth, ground'.

Sa. OTa? `to uncover'.
Mu. OTa? `to uncover'.

Sa. Ota `to press'.
Mu. Ota `to press'.
KW Ota

``^press down'':
Kh. OtOn `to press down'.
Sa. ota `to press down, throw'.
  ~ tEn `to press, keep down'.
Mu. ota `to press down, throw'.
Ho ota `to press down, throw'.
  ~ ten `to press, keep down'.

Sa. OTaG `to fly'.
Mu. OTaG `to fly'.

``^vegetable sp.'':
Sa. oTo `kind of vegetable'.
Mu. uTu `kind of vegetable'.
KW u`Tu`

Sa. OtOG `to follow'.
Mu. OtOG `to follow'.

So. p[An]Ar/ pAr `bow string'.
Kh. panic(ABD)
  ~ pAni:c(P) `bow string'.
Sa. pAnicha
  ~ po~R~cha `a bow string made of bamboo'.
Mu. pani'j `a bow string made of bamboo'.  !Bage panic

``^not to be'':
Sa. papu? `not to be'.
Mu. papu? `not to be'.
KW papu?

Kh. parkOm `stringbed, cot'.
Sa. parkOm `a bedstead, make a bedstead'.
Mu. parkOm `a bedstead, make a bedstead'.
Ho parkom `a bedstead, make a bedstead'.
Bh. parkom `a bedstead, make a bedstead'.
Ku. parkom `a bedstead, make a bedstead'.

So. parua(R) `pigeon'.
Kh. pero~a `pigeon'.  ! perwa~ `Al. 1331'.
Sa. parwa `the common pigeon (%Columba_intermedia)'.

Sa. pasir `to splash'.
Mu. pasir `to splash'.
KW pasir

Sa. paTEd `to braid'.
Mu. paTEd `to braid'.
KW paTEd

``^miss (a mark)'':
Sa. paTEd `to miss (a mark)'.
Mu. paTEd `to miss (a mark)'.
KW paTEd

Sa. paTub `to uproot'.
Mu. paTub `to uproot'.
KW paTub

Sa. pauRa `to sacrifice; a sacrifice'.
Mu. pauRa `to sacrifice; a sacrifice'.
KW pauRa

So. ya-gi `three'.
Kh. u'phe
  ~ u'fe `three'.
Sa. pea
  ~ pE `three'.
Ma. pE
  ~ pea `three'.
Mu. api
  ~ apia `three'.
Ho apia
  ~ ape `three'.
Bj. apia `three'.
Bh. pE
  ~ pea `three'.
Dh. pE
  ~ pea `three'.
As. pea `three'.
Kw. pei `three'.
KW a-pE`-a
Ku. apai `three'.

Kh. pER~E'D
  ~ pE~R~E~'D `a big fife'.
Sa. pEpR~E~'d `a kind of trumpet'.
Mu. pErE~R~E~'d `a long trumpet'.
Ho pere~e'd `a long trumpet'.
@(V162, cf. V157))

``^relative, guest'':
Sa. pERa `relative, guest'.
Mu. pERa `relative, guest'.

Sa. pErEj `to fill'.
Mu. pErEj `to fill'.
KW pErEj

Sa. pETEj `to break'.
Mu. pETEj `to break'.

``^play a flute'':
So. pED `to blow a flute, play a wind instrument'.
  ~ p[An]Ed `a flute'.
Gu. pe'd `to play on a flute'.
Kh. pE'D `to pipe'.
Sa. phE'd `to play (on a string), rebound'.
Mu. pE'd.pE'd `the hollow sound of a stomach distended by wind, when slapped'.
@(V157, cf. V162)

So. A-piG `hole'.  !?
So. pu
  ~ po `to pierce, to stab, to thrust'.
Kh. fO?
  ~ phO? `to butt at'.
Kh. fOGga? `to bore'.
Sa. phOGgla `to be enlarged (a hole)'.
Sa. phOGkE `with openings in walls, etc.'.
Mu. bhaG-bhOG
  ~ baG-bOG `several holes which go straight through and through'.
Mu. bu? `a hole through and through, to pierce, to bore'.
Mu. phOG `to have an opening or outlet'.

``^leaf cup'':
Sa. phuRu? `leaf cup'.
Mu. puRu? `leaf cup'.
KW phuRu?
  ~ puRu?

``^bird: golden oriole'':
Kh. piyo kOnthE'D `a bird, the Golden Oriole (%Oriolus_melanocephalus)'.
Sa. pio (cE~R~E~) `a bird, the Golden_Oriole (%Oriolus_melanocephalus)'.
Mu. pio (cE~R~E~)(N) `a bird, the Golden Oriole (%Oriolus_melanocephalus)'.

Kh. pipni? `eyebrow'.
Sa. pipni `eyelid'.
Mu. pipni(')
  ~ mE'd-pip(A)ni(') `eyelid, eyelash'.
Bh. pipAni `eyelid, eyelash'.

Kh. peiT `market, bazaar'.  !written peiTh
Sa. piThiA `market, bazaar'.
Mu. piT
  ~ pi~Ti
  ~ piThiya `market, bazaar'.

``^clean cotton'':
Sa. pitlEd `to clean cotton'.
Mu. pitlEd `to clean cotton'.
KW pitlEd

Sa. piTu `small ear, small-earred person'.
Mu. piTu `small ear, small-earred person'.
KW piTu

Kh. pu `to chip'.
Sa. po `to hoe, to dig'.
Mu. pu: `to dig or cut out tree stumps in the jungle'.

Sa. podoe `powder'.
Mu. pudui `powder'.
KW pu`du`i`

Sa. pOha? `to break'.
Mu. pOha? `to break'.
KW pOha?

``^insect sp., ^locust'':
Sa. poho `locust'.
Mu. puhu `locust'.
KW pu`hu`

So. unji(D) `four'.
Go. ungi(RR) `four'.
  ~ vunigi(V) `four'.
Gu.~ u'n(R4)
  ~ vu:n
  ~ uun-ro(B) `four'.
Re. oJ(RR) `four'.
Kh. i'pOn
  ~ i'fOn `four'.
Sa. pon
  ~ ponea `four'.
Ma. pon
  ~ ponea `four'.
Mu. upunia
  ~ upuna
  ~ upun `four'.
Ho upun
  ~ uponia `four'.
Bj. upunia `four'.
Bh. pon
  ~ ponea `four'.
Dh. pon
  ~ ponea `four'.
As. upun `four'.
KW u`pu`n
Ku. uphunia
  ~ upun
  ~ upunia
  ~ upuna `four'.
|May be analyzed u-pun (M134).

Sa. pOsEd `to burst'.
Mu. pusij `to burst'.
KW pO`sE`d
  ~ pO`sE`j  !orig. pusE`d, pusE`j, but pO`sE`d, pO`sE`j M096, pO`sE`j M124

``^humiliate, ^degrade'':
Sa. pOsRa `to humiliate, degrade'.
Mu. pOsRa `to humiliate, degrade'.
KW pOsRa

Sa. pOTa `intestine'.
Mu. pOTa `intestine'.

Sa. pOtam `dove'.
Mu. putam `dove'.
KW pO`tam

``^bulge, full'':
Sa. pOtE
  ~ puTi `to bulge out, become full'.
Mu. puTi `to bulge out, become full'.
  ~ puTi

``^germinate, swell'':
So. pel `to swell'.  !Ram. ?
Kh. pOTki `to germinate'.
Kh. pOTri `pregnant'.
Sa. pOTkO'j `to germinate, come up'.
Sa. pOTrE'j
  ~ pOTrE'd `lean with a big stomach'.
Sa. puTi `to swell, bloat, puff up'.
Mu. poTea
  ~ pOTka
  ~ pOTApOTO lai'j `a stomach and abdomen protuberant as if distended with food'.
Mu. puTi `to flow out of a spring'.
Ho puti `to swell'.  !i.e. puTi

Sa. pOTkOj `mushroom'.
Mu. puTkuj `mushroom'.
KW pO`TkO`j

Sa. poTor `to scratch; a scratch'.
Mu. puTur `to scratch; a scratch'.
KW pu`Tu`r

So. pui
  ~ pu'y
  ~ pu"i `to pull out, to pluck out as weeds'.  !? Ram.
Kh. pu'jda? `to throw water, gargle'.
Mu. pui'j(H)
  ~ pOe'j `to rinse the mouth'.
Mu. pOi'j(N) `to rinse the mouth'.

Sa. pusi `cat'.
Mu. pusi `cat'.
KW pusi

So. pusi `cat (in the language of children)'.
Kh. pusi `cat'.
Sa. pusi `cat (%Felis_domestica)'.
Ma. pusi `cat (%Felis_domestica)'.
Mu. pusi `cat (%Felis_domestica)'.
Ho pusi `cat (%Felis_domestica)'.
Bh. pusi `cat (%Felis_domestica)'.
Dh. pusi `cat (%Felis_domestica)'.
Kw. pusi `cat (%Felis_domestica)'.

Sa. puThuj `to squeeze'.
Mu. puTuj `to squeeze'.
KW puThuj
  ~ puTuj

Sa. ra? `to cry'.
Mu. ra? `to cry'.
KW ra?

Kh. rema? `to call'.
  ~ remakhO? (he) calls
Sa. ra? `to cry, call, sing, weep'.
Mu. ra? `to cry, call'.
Ho ra? `to cry, call'.
Bh. ra? `to cry, call'.
Ku. ra `to cry, call'.

So. raGa(R) `cold, chill'.
Gu. ruGgo `cold'.
Gu. ruoJ `cold'.
Re. ruoJ `cold'.
Kh. raGga `cold, to feel ~cold'.
Kh. ruGgum `cold'.
Sa. rabaG `cold'.
Mu. rabaG `cold'.
Ho rabaG `cold'.
Bj. rabaG `cold'.
KW rabaG
Ku. raG `to be cold, shiver'.  ! raraG
  ~ raram
|Cf. Sa., Mu. rataG `ice'.

Sa. raca? `to draw'.
Mu. raca? `to draw'.
KW raca?

Sa. raca `courtyard'.
Mu. raca `courtyard'.
KW raca

``^gravelly, ^rough'':
Kh. rOkE'D
  ~ rOkE~'D `sand'.
  ~ ragRa `to rub'.
Sa. ragad(M) `rough'.
  ~ ragaR rogoR `rough, uneven, stony, gravelly'.
  ~ rigOR rOgOR `stony, gravelly'.
  ~ ragae.ragae `gritty, rough'.
Mu. ragad(M) `rough'.
  ~ rugu'd `gravel'.
  ~ ruguRi `gravel, gravelly earth'.
  ~ ragae.ragae `rough, uneven'.
|Hi. rAgARAna `to rub, Nep. rAgARAnU(Tu.) `to rub'.  Loan relationship unclear (HJP).
KW ragad

Sa. ram `to cover'.
Mu. ram `to cover'.
KW ram

``^nail, claw'':
So. rAmEG/ rAm(M) `cat'.  !Ram., P suggests this in C432, which is otherwise like V030
Gu. rUmaji `nail'.
Kh. rama~D
  ~ ramaD `nail, claw'.
Sa. rama `nail, claw'.
Mu. rama `nail, claw'.
Ho rama `nail, claw'.
Bh. rama `nail, claw'.

Kh. rambara `%Phaseolus_Roxburghii'.  !perhaps rambaRa
Sa. rambRa `a leguminous plant, %Phaseolus_radiatus,_Willd., commonly cultivated'.
Mu. rambARa(H)
  ~ rambRa `%Phaseolus_Roxburghii'.
Mu. ramRa(N) `%Phaseolus_Roxburghii'.
Ho ramba: `the green gram, a cultivated pulse'.
Bh. ramra `%Phaseolus'.  !really ramRa (HJP)

So. rEgAm `medicine'.
Kh. ranu `concoction'.
Sa. ran `medicine, a drug'.
  ~ rAnu `the fermenting stuff used when brewing beer'.
Mu. ranu `medicine, fermenting stuff, ferment for bread, rice beer, etc.'.
Bh. ranu `medicine'.
As. ran `drugs'.
KW ranu
Ku. rano
  ~ ran `medicine'.
|One of a few Santali forms which drop final V (RDM), but cf. ranu `ingredient used in brewing rice beer'.

Sa. raNDO `big'.
Mu. raNDO `big'.

Sa. raNDOb `to pinch'.
Mu. raNDOb `to pinch'.

``^medicine; brewing ingredient'':
Sa. ranu `ingredient used in brewing rice beer'.
  ~ ran `medicine'.
Mu. ranu `ingredient used in brewing rice beer'.
KW ranu

Sa. rapa? `to roast'.
Mu. rapa? `to roast'.
KW rapa?

So. rAppaD `to break (as a stick or bone)'.
Kh. rapO'j `to gripe with nail'.  !cf. rama'D `nail V029'.
  ~ pi'j `to break'.  !imper. pije, pret. pichO'ki
Sa. rApu'd `to break, finish, burst, crack'.
Mu. rapu'd `to break'.
Ho rapu'd `to break'.
Bh. rapu'd `to break'.
KW rapud
Ku. ra'b `to break'.

Sa. raREj `cool'.
Mu. raREj `cool'.
KW raREj
|Cf. KW rEhaR `id.'.

``^ice, ^frost'':
Sa. rataG `frost, hoar-frost, ice, snow'.
Mu. rataG `dew, mist, hoarfrost, ice'.
KW rataG

Sa. rawal `light'.
Mu. rabal `light'.
KW rabal
|Note the rare correspondence Sa. w : Mu. b (RDM).

Sa. ra~wa~ `influence, sway, force, control, power of volition, constitution, quality, force of personality'.
Mu. roa
  ~ rowa
  ~ ro~a~
  ~ ro~w~a~ `soul, spirit'.
Ku. rawan `spirit'.
  ~ ru:ha `soul, spirit'.

``^rob'':  ??##split
So. ruju(R) `to plunder, to rob'.
Kh. lusi `to rob, to plunder, to snatch'.
Sa. rE'j `to take away by force or fraud, deprive of, snatch away'.
Mu. lusi `the habit of eating things on the sly, to steal and eat things on the sly'.
  ~ pusi haikoe lusikE'dlea! the cat h...??
Mu. rE'j `to rob, to snatch away, robbery'.  ! rE?
Ho rE'j `to rob, to snatch away, robbery'.  ! rE?

Sa. rEbEd `to insert'.
Mu. rEbEd `to insert'.
KW rEbEd

Sa. rEbOd
  ~ rObOd `to grasp'.
Mu. rOmbOd `to grasp'.
KW rEbOd

Sa. rEGgEj `hunger; to hunger'.
Mu. rEGgEj `hunger; to hunger'.

Kh. rEGrETa `lean'.
Sa. reGgha `slender, slim, thin'.
  ~ reGTa `lean and tall'.
  ~ rEGglE'j `smooth, graceful'.
  ~ rEGgE'j `want, hunger'.
Mu. rEGgE
  ~ rEGgE.rEGgE
  ~ rEGgERE
  ~ rEGgETa
  ~ rEGgETha `emaciated'.
  ~ rEGgE'j `hunger, appetite, hungry'.
  ~ rENTa(M) `thin; to press'.
Ho reGge `hunger, poor'.
Bh. reGge `hunger, poor'.
KW rENTa  ??just for the Sa.,Mu.
Ku. raGge'j `hunger'.

Sa. reGgod `maggot'.
Mu. riGgud `maggot'.
KW ri`Ggu`d

Sa. rEhaR `cool'.
Mu. rEhaR `cool'.
KW rEhaR
|Cf. KW raRej `id.'.

So. je'eD(D) `root'.
Go. se:r `root'.
Kh. ju:'D `root'.
Sa. rEhE'd `root'.
Mu. re:'d `root'.
Ho re'd `root'.
Bh. rehed `root'.

Sa. rEhEd `root'.
Mu. rEhEd `root'.
KW rEhEd

Sa. rEj `to rob'.
Mu. rEj `to rob'.
KW rEj

``^drain, press'':
Sa. rEJjEd `to drain, press'.
Mu. rEJjEd
  ~ riJjid `to drain, press'.
  ~ rE`JjE`d
|Cf. hiJjid `to drain'; M130 juxtaposes these and puts a morpheme boundary between the syllables.

Sa. rel `to winnow'.
Mu. ril `to winnow'.
KW ri`l

Sa. rEm-kOd `to shut (e.g. one's mouth)'.
Mu. rim-kud `to shut (e.g. one's mouth)'.
KW rE`m-kO`d

``^pick_up, ^lift'':
So. Jam `to catch'.  !Ram., ?
Gu. se~po~ `to catch'.  !?
Kh. ram `to pick up (mohua), to take up'.
Sa. rem
  ~ rim `to lift up, take up'.
Sa. rimi `to find, pick up'.
Mu. rim `to raise up, to lift'.
Bh. rim `to lift'.
KW ri`m
Ku. rim `to lift'.

``^insect sp.'':
Sa. rErEG `kind of insect'.
Mu. rEG `kind of insect'.
|Onomatopoeic; the Santali form is reduplicated rE.rEG (RDM).

So. riD `to grind (in a mill)'.
Kh. ri'D `to grind'.
Sa. ri'd `to grind (in a stone), to crush'.
Mu. ri'd `to grind (in a stone), to crush'.
Ho rid `to grind (in a stone), to crush'.
Bh. rid `to grind (in a stone), to crush'.
KW rid
Ku. rid `to grind (in a stone), to crush'.

Sa. ricab `to nibble'.
Mu. rucab `to nibble'.
KW ricab
  ~ rucab

Sa. rici `hawk'.
Mu. rici `hawk'.
KW rici

``^do, keep, place'':
Sa. rika `to do, keep, place'.
Mu. rika `to do, keep, place'.
KW rika

``^shut mouth'':
Sa. rikub `to shut one's mouth'.
Mu. rikub `to shut one's mouth'.
KW rikub

Sa. rimil `sky'.
Mu. rimil
  ~ rimbil `sky'.
KW rimil
  ~ rimbil

So. ro(R) `to pierce, to insert, to penetrate, to thrust, to pick'.
Kh. ru? `to open'.  !Joh. 9,10
Sa. rO? `to sew, stitch together, pierce, perforate'.
Mu. rO? `the cutting of a hole with a chisel [P]; to mend [M]'.
KW rO?

So. raD `to milk'.
So. ruj
  ~ rui-ro'j
  ~ roi `to pluck, to pull out, to snatch, to wrench'.
Mu. rO'j `to squeeze out the juice from a fruit'.
Mu. ta:ui `to draw milk from a nipple'.
Mu. roe'-en(H) `reflexive form of to draw milk from a nipple'.
Mu. roj-en(N) `reflexive form of to draw milk from a nipple'.
Ku. roj
  ~ roj-ki `to wring, squeeze'.
Ku. roji
  ~ roroj `to milk cows'.

Sa. rO `to singe'.
Mu. rO `to singe'.

``^fly (insect)'':
So. Aroy(R) `fly'.
Go. aroi `fly'.
Gu. uroy `fly'.
Kh. kONDOi
  ~ kONDOe `fly'.
Sa. rO `fly'.
Mu. rO(M)
  ~ rOkO(P) `fly'.
Ho roko `fly'.
Bh. roko `fly'.
Ku. ruku `fly'.  ! ru:ku:
Na. eDUgo `fly'.

Sa. rOcOd `to rupture'.
Mu. rOcOd `to rupture'.
KW rOcOd

Sa. rOd `to decide'.
Mu. rOd `to decide'.
KW rOd

Sa. rODOj `to wring'.
Mu. rODOj `to wring'.

Sa. rOGgO `to burn; burnt'.
Mu. rOGgO `to burn; burnt'.

Sa. rOhOR `dry, to dry, to make, become dry'.
Mu. rOhOR(N)
  ~ rO:RO(H) `dry'.
Ho ro `dry'.
Bh. rOhR `dry'.
Ku. lokhOr
  ~ lokor `dry'.

Sa. rOka `fresh'.
Mu. rOka `fresh'.
KW rOka

``^take off the fire'':
Sa. rOl `to take off the fire'.
Mu. rul `to take off the fire'.
KW rO`l

``^fever, sickness'':
Sa. rua `fever, sickness'.
Mu. rua `fever, sickness'.
KW rua
|Cf. So. roga `smallpox'  !IA?

Kh. ubRae `up-turned'.
Kh. ulrai `to turn the hand over'.
Sa. ruAR `to turn back, return'.
Mu. ruaR
  ~ ruAR
  ~ ruaRa(H)
  ~ ru:Ra `to bring, lead, or send back, to come or go back, to return'.
Ho rua `to return'.
Bh. ru:aR `to return'.
KW ruaR

``^poison fish'':
Sa. rub `to poison fish'.
Mu. rub `to poison fish'.
KW rub

Sa. rucub `crispy'.
Mu. rucub `crispy'.
KW rucub

Sa. ruhEd `to moan; a moan'.
Mu. ruhid `to moan; a moan'.
KW ruhE`d

Sa. ruji `clitoris'.
Mu. ruji `clitoris'.
KW ruji

Sa. ruku `to shake'.
Mu. ruku `to shake'.
KW ruku

Sa. rul `to raise'.
Mu. rul `to raise'.
KW rul

Sa. ruNDa `wildcat'.
Mu. ruNDa `wildcat'.
KW ruNDa

So. lU.lU(R)
  ~ lo.lo `to take rest'.
Kh. leru' na' dino `the Sabbath, day of rest'.  !Joh.5,9
Kh. leru? `to rest'.
Mu. ruRu `rest, time of rest, time for rest'.
Mu. ruRun `to be fatigued, to be tired, to rest after fatigue'.

Kh. rutu `small fife'.
Mu. rutu `bamboo flute'.
Ho rutu `bamboo flute'.

Sa. sab `to grasp'.
Mu. sab `to grasp'.
KW sab

Sa. saba? `tasteless'.
Mu. saba? `tasteless'.
KW saba?

``^noise, beat game'':
Sa. saD
  ~ saDE `to make noise, beat game'.
Mu. saDi `to make noise, beat game'.
KW saDE`

Sa. sadOm `horse'.
Ma. sadOm `horse'.
Mu. sadOm `horse'.
Ho sadOm `horse'.
Bh. sadOm `horse'.
Dh. sadOm `horse'.
KW sadOm

``^grass sp.'':
Sa. saga? `kind of grass'.
Mu. saga? `kind of grass'.
KW saga?

``new ^leaf'':
Sa. sagEn `new leaf'.
Mu. saGgEn `new leaf'.
KW sagEn

Sa. saGgar `to hunt'.
Mu. saGgar `to hunt'.
KW saGgar

``^look up'':
Sa. saGgil `to look up'.
Mu. saGgil `to look up'.
KW saGgil

So. sAGaj `far, distant, at a distance'.
Go. saGa:i
  ~ saGgayi(V) `far'.
Gu. saGa:yi `far'.
Sa. saGgiJ(M) `distant, far away'.
Ma. saGgin `distance, distant, far away'.
Mu. saGgiJ(M)
  ~ saGgiG(M)
  ~ saGgin `distance, distant, far away'.
Ho saGgiG `distance, distant, far away'.
Bj. saGgiG
  ~ saGginiya `distance, distant, far away'.
Bh. saGgin `distance, distant, far away'.
Dh. sAGgin `distance, distant, far away'.
Kw. saGgiyaG `distance, distant, far away'.
KW saGgiJ
  ~ saGgiG
Ku. saGgin `distance, distant, far away'.

Sa. sahan `firewood'.
Mu. sahan `firewood'.
KW sahan

``^breath; breathe'':
Sa. sahEd `to breathe; breath'.
Mu. sahEd `to breathe; breath'.
KW sahEd

Sa. sakam `leaf'.
Mu. sakam `leaf'.
KW sakam

Sa. sakid `to freeze'.
Mu. sakid `to freeze'.
KW sakid

Sa. sakRi `leftover'.
Mu. sakRi `leftover'.
KW sakRi
|Cf. Sa., Mu. sarEj `id.'.

``wild ^buffalo'':
So. sayel(R)
  ~ sayal `wild buffalo, deer'.
Gu. sa:il `wild buffalo, deer'.
Sa. sAl `the Indian Gaur (%Bos_Gaurus, %Gavaeus_Gaurus)'.
Mu. sahil
  ~ saili `a wild buffalo'.
Bh. sail `a wild buffalo'.

Sa. sama? `to pound'.
Mu. sama? `to pound'.
KW sama?

So. AmAG
  ~ mAG `before, near, by the side of, beside'.  !postposition, preposed to personal pronouns
  ~ AbmAG `previously, earlier'.
Go. amma:Ggu(V) `before'.
Gu. sumo:G `before'.
Kh. sOmOG `forehead'.
Ju. emoG `forehead'.
Sa. samaG `front, place in front of'.
Mu. samaG `to front'.
  ~ sanAmaG
  ~ sanmaG `front, face to face'.
Ho sanamaGre `in front'.
Bh. samaG `near, before'.
Dh. samaG `near, before'.
KW samaG
Ku. samman `front'.

``^tree sp.'':
Sa. saparOm `kind of tree'.
Mu. saparum `kind of tree'.
KW saparO`m

``^open, burst'':
Sa. saR `to open, burst'.  ??isolated form
KW saR

So. sAra/ sAr(M) `arrow'.
Ho a'-sar `bow and arrow'.  | a' `bow'.
Ju. saru(P),, sOrO(KM) `arrow'.  #Sa., Mu., Ho sar, H. $ArA, ~ sArA, O. $OrO, Sk. $ArA, ~ $ArU, So. -sar??.  @Beitraege.

Sa. sardi `abundance'.  !orig. abundant
Mu. sardi `abundance'.
KW sardi

Sa. sarEj `leftover'.
Mu. sarEj `leftover'.
KW sarEj
|Cf. Sa., Mu. sakRi `id.'.

Sa. sarhaR `to overflow'.
Mu. sarhaR `to overflow'.
KW sarhaR

Sa. saRim `roof'.
Mu. saRima
  ~ saRim `roof'.
KW saRima

``^tree sp.'':
Sa. sarjOm `kind of tree'.
Mu. sarjOm `kind of tree'.
KW sarjOm

Sa. sarla? `splinter'.
Mu. sarla? `splinter'.
KW sarla?

Sa. sartal `to open'.
Mu. sartal `to open'.
KW sartal

``^root sp.'':
Sa. saru `kind of root'.
Mu. saru `kind of root'.
KW saru

``^turmeric, ^yellow'':
So. saGsaG/ saG `turmeric, yellow'.
Go. saGsaG `turmeric'.
Gu. saGsaG `turmeric'.
Re. saGsaG `turmeric'.
Kh. sAGsAG
  ~ sOGsOG `yellow, turmeric'.
Sa. sasaG `the turmeric plant (%Curcuma_longa,_L.), turmeric'.
Mu. sasaG `the turmeric plant (%Curcuma_longa,_L.), turmeric'.
Ho sasaG `the turmeric plant (%Curcuma_longa,_L.), turmeric'.
Bh. sasaG `the turmeric plant (%Curcuma_longa,_L.), turmeric'.
KW sasaG
Ku. sasaG `the turmeric plant (%Curcuma_longa,_L.), turmeric'.

So. sattoi(R) `actually, truly'.
Kh. sat `truth'.
Kh. sO'tO.sO'tO-ga `truly, truly'.  !Joh. 1,51
Kh. sO'tO `true, right, correct'.
Mu. sat `true, truth'.
Mu. sO'dtO `true'.

``^two_^years from now, year after next'':
Sa. satOm `two years from now, year after next'.
Mu. satOm `two years from now, year after next'.
KW satOm

``^grass sp.'':
Sa. sauRi `kind of grass'.
Mu. sauRi `kind of grass'.
KW sauRi

``^step over, step on, kick'':
Sa. sa~RgOm `to step over, step on, kick'.
Mu. saRgOm `to step over, step on, kick'.
KW saRgOm
|Cf. the nasalization in Sa. a~RgOm : Mu. aRgOm `level'.

So. i'i/ i `louse'.
Kh. sE? `louse'.
Sa. se `louse'.
Mu. siku `louse'.
Ho siku `louse'.
Ku. siku `louse'.
|GrKhs 684; SB F 169; "Der Floh wird mehrfach als Laus des Hundes bezeichnet, e.g. [inter alia] Bahn. si ko; beruht die Uebereinstimmung von Bahn. si ko mit Ho siku: auf Zufall?" (Kuhn p. 215); but -ku is probably a suffix, cf. Kh. siGkOe from * sim-kO-i, Mu. ha-i, haku `fish' (HJP).

Sa. sEa `to rot'.
Mu. sOEa `to rot'.
|The Santali reflex is unusual (RDM).

``^tasty, ^sweet'':
Gu. sabbul
  ~ subul `sweet'.
Kh. sEbOl
  ~ sObOl `sweet'.
Sa. sebel `taste, flavour, tasty'.
Mu. sibil `tasteful, delicious'.
Ho sibil `taste, flavour, tasty'.
Bj. sibil `sweet'.
Bh. sibil `sweet, tasty'.
KW si`bi`l
Ku. $imbil
  ~ $imil `sweet'.

``^ancient, ^previous'':
Sa. sedae `ancient, olden times, long ago'.
Mu. sida `previous, before, first'.
Ho sida `previous, before, first'.
KW sE`daE
  ~ sE`da

So. OntiD/ tid `bird'.
Kh. kOnthE'D `bird'.
Ju. konter `bird'.
Sa. sEGgEl TiTi `the Guinea fowl'.
Kw. titi `a certain bird'.
Ku. titit `a certain bird'.
|Source of Sk. $a-kunti m. `bird' (PMW 119f.); cf. also Sk. tittira m. `Rehbuhn', Nep. tItro `partridg'e, Hi. titArA(Tu.) m. (HJP); OrN 392.

``^fire, firewood'':  ??%%split?
So. AGAl(R)/ AG `firewood, fuel'.
Go. aGal `firewood'.
Gu. suGgol `fire'.
Kh. sOGgOl `firewood, fuel'.
  ~ timsOG `fire'.
Ju. songon `firewood, fuel'.
  ~ nelye `fire'.
Sa. sEGgEl `fire'.
  ~ basaG warm, hot, to boil'.
Ma. sEGgEl `fire'.
Mu. sEGgEl `fire'.
  ~ basaG `to boil'.
  ~ tErsaG `to bask in the sun, to warm oneself by a fire'.
Ho seGgel `fire'.
  ~ basaG `warm, to boil'.
Bj. seGgel `fire'.
Bh. seGgel `fire'.
Dh. sEGgEl `fire'.
Kw. seGgel `fire'.
Ku. siGgel `fire'.
  ~ $iGgal `fire'.

``^tree sp.'':
Sa. sEkrEj `kind of tree'.
Mu. sEkrEj `kind of tree'.
KW sEkrEj

Kh. sElhO'b `deer'.
Ju. silip `a kind of deer'.
Sa. sele'b
  ~ sele'b `certain deer so called, viz. badaR sele'b the buck of the Ravine Deer (%Gazella_Bennettii)'.  !?sp of Lat, cf below
Mu. sili'b(HN)
  ~ sile'b(N) `the Indian Gazelle or Ravine Deer (%Gazella_Bennetti)'.  !EM.
Kw. silip `a kind of deer'.  !i.e. sili'b(HJP).
KW si`li`b

Sa. sElEd `to mix'.
Mu. sElEd `to mix'.
KW sElEd

Kh. san
  ~ sAn `to go'.
  ~ sangO'D `to walk'.
Sa. sEn `to go, to obey, to follow one's wish or order'.
Mu. sEn `to go'.
Ho san-o(Hunter) `to go'.
Bj. san-o(Hunter) `to go'.
Bh. sen `to go'.
Dh. senO? `to go'.
KW sEn
Ku. $en `to go'.

Sa. sEndra `to hunt'.
Mu. sEndEra
  ~ sEndra `to hunt'.
KW sEndEra
  ~ sEndra

Sa. sEnEr `rafter'.
Mu. sEnOr
  ~ sEnEOr `rafter'.
KW sEnhOr
  ~ sEnEhOr
|Contains a nominalizing infix, sE[nE]hOr (or s[En]EhOr (DS)); both languages have lost h here (RDM).

``^hold on palms'':
Sa. sepeJ `to hold on one's palms'.
Mu. sipiG `to hold on one's palms'.
KW si`pi`J
  ~ si`pi`G

Sa. sErEd `to crash'.
Mu. sErEd `to crash'.
KW sErEd

So. arEG(R)/ rEG `stone'.
Go. a:reG `stone'.
Kh. sOrEG `rock, stone'.
  ~ ku~R~u~-sOr `grinding cylinder'.
  ~ pa'D-sOr `grind-stone'.
  ~ thOm-sOr `to stone, to smash with a stone'.
Mu. sErEG `a large, flat stone'.

``^sky, ^heaven'':
Sa. serma `sky, firmament, heaven, year'.
Mu. sirma `sky, heaven, year'.
Ho sirma `sky, heaven, year'.
Bj. sirma `sky, heaven, year'.
Bh. sirma `sky, heaven, year'.
KW sE`rma

Sa. sErOm `neck'.
Mu. sErOm `neck'.
KW sErOm

Sa. seta? `morning'.
Mu. seta? `morning'.
Ho seta?
  ~ seta `morning'.
Bh. seta? `morning'.
KW sEta?

Sa. seta `dog'.
Ma. seta `dog'.
Mu. seta `dog'.
Ho seta `dog'.
Bj. seta `dog'.
Bh. seta `dog'.
Dh. seta `dog'.
KW sEta
Ku. sita
  ~ tsita `dog'.
Mw. seta
  ~ cita `dog'.

Sa. sETEj `to husk'.
Mu. sETEj `to husk'.

Sa. sETEr `to reach'.
Mu. sETEr `to reach'.

Sa. setoG `heat'.
Mu. situG `heat'.
KW si`tu`G

Kh. silO? `to plow'.
Sa. si `to plow'.
Mu. si
  ~ siu `to plow'.
Ho si `to plow'.
Bh. si
  ~ siu `to plow'.
KW si

Sa. sid `to pluck'.
Mu. sid `to pluck'.
KW sid

Sa. siDgir `waterfall'.
Mu. siDgir `waterfall'.
KW siDgir

``^put_^vertically, ^stand_^upright'':
Sa. sidub `to put vertically'.
Mu. sidub `to put vertically'.
KW sidub

Sa. siGgaR `evening; to be evening'.
Mu. siGgaR `evening; to be evening'.
KW siGgaR

``^tree, ^vegetable'':
Kh. OrsiG/ Or `bean'.  !recte prob. ORsiG/ OR(HJP
Sa. siJ aRa? `a certain tree (%Bauhinia_variegata)'.
Mu. siG `a tree'.  !only in compounds, e.g. siGaRa?, siGARa?(HN) `%Bauhinia_purpurea,_Linn.; its leaves, used as a potherb'.
  ~ siG-buiG
  ~ siG-disum `the district of Singbhum'.
Ho siGa:? `the leaves of siGa:'-daru (%Bauhinia_purpurea,_Linn.,_Caesalpinae) when used as a potherb'.
Kw. siG `tree'.
KW siJ
  ~ siG
Ku. ciG
  ~ tsiG
  ~ $iG
  ~ si:Jj `tree'.

So. oyoG/ yoG `sun'.
Gu. siGgi
  ~ si~i~(B) `sun'.
Kh. mu'siG `to rise (as the sun)'.
Sa. siJ `day'.
  ~ siJ cando `the sun'.
  ~ siJ-boGga `the Sun God'.
Ma. siJ cando `sun'.
Mu. siGgi `sun, day'.
  ~ siG-bOGga `Sun God'.
Ho siG `day, sun'.
  ~ siGgi `day, sun'.
Bj. siGgi `sun'.
Bh. siGgi `day, sun'.
Dh. siG-boGga `Sun God'.
Ku. $iGgaru'b
  ~ $iGru'b
  ~ $iGrup `setting of the sun, evening'.  ! -aru'b `cf. V280'.

``^fruit sp.'':
Sa. siJjO `kind of fruit'.
Mu. siJjO
  ~ siJju `kind of fruit'.
KW siJjO
|Analyzable siJ-jO, cf. jO `fruit'; the Mundari variant with u clearly is due to assimilation of O to V1 i (RDM).

Gu. kirGgi
  ~ kirigi `mosquito'.
Sa. sikR~i~'j `mosquito'.
Mu. sikR~i~ `mosquito'.  !written siknRi(Bhad).
  ~ sikNi(RDH)
  ~ sikRi~(Bodd)
Ho sikiG
  ~ siki~ `mosquito'.
Ku. cikni
  ~ sikni `eye-fly or mosquito'.

Sa. sikub `blunt'.
Mu. sikub `blunt'.
KW sikub

Sa. silpiJ `door'.
Mu. silpiG
  ~ silpiJ `door'.
KW silpiJ
  ~ silpiG

So. kAnsim/ im `fowl, chicken'.  !CF also sim `in AdrE-sim chicken egg'.
Go. aGoi `hen'.
Gu. gi-siG `hen'.
Re. gi-siG `hen'.
Kh. siGkOe `fowl'.
Ju. saGgoi
  ~ sAGke
  ~ seGkoi `hen'.
Sa. sim `fowl'.
Ma. sim `fowl'.
Mu. sim `fowl'.
Ho sim `fowl'.
Bh. sim `fowl'.
Dh. sim `fowl'.
Kw. sim `fowl'.
KW sim
Ku. $im `hen'.
|EsA 120; SB B 216; MKhmV 97, no. 322; GrKhs 802.

``^wash head'':
Sa. sipi `to wash one's head'.
Mu. sipi `to wash one's head'.
KW sipi

Sa. sipOd `to mix'.
Mu. sipud `to mix'.
KW sipO`d

Sa. sirgad `rough'.
Mu. sirgad `rough'.
KW sirgad

``^grass sp.'':
Sa. sirOm `kind of grass'.
Mu. sirum `kind of grass'.
KW sirO`m

So. sArub
  ~ sArob `to drink noisily, to slurp'.  !Ram. has to suck, sip
  ~ sumrub(R) `to suck with noise'.
Kh. suru'b atmen `to breathe, to gargle'.
Sa. siRu'b `to suck in audibly, to sip'.
  ~ sOrpO'd `to sip, suck in'.
Mu. si'b `to smoke'.

Sa. si~Ri~j `to stink; a bad smell'.
Mu. siNij `to stink; a bad smell'.
KW siNij

``^smell, ^stink'':
So. sO'O `to stink'.
Sa. sO `smell'.
Mu. sO-an `odor, smell, bad or disagreeable taste'.
KW sO-an
Ku. su-ki-n `to smell'.

``^remove thorn'':
Sa. so `to remove a thorn (e.g. from one's foot)'.
Mu. su `to remove a thorn (e.g. from one's foot)'.
KW su`

Sa. sOG `to measure'.
Mu. sOG `to measure'.

Sa. sOga? `to peck'.
Mu. sOga? `to peck'.
KW sOga?

``^insert, ^accommodate'':
Sa. sOhOb `to insert, accommodate'.  !RDM says V2 is assimilated to V1??
Mu. sOhOb `to insert, accommodate'.
KW sOhOb

``^dart forward, stumble'':
Sa. sOhOr `to dart forward, stumble'.
Mu. sOhOr `to dart forward, stumble'.
KW sOhOr
|Cf. hOsOr `to descend' (RDM).

Sa. sokol `smoke'.
Mu. sukul `smoke'.
KW su`ku`l

``^low land'':
Sa. sOkRa `low land'.
Mu. sOkRa `low land'.
KW sOkRa

Sa. sOmbOd `to stumble'.
Mu. sOmbOd `to stumble'.
KW sOmbOd

Sa. sOndrO `pus'.
Mu. sOndOrO
  ~ sOndrO `pus'.
KW sOndOrO
  ~ sOndrO

Sa. sopo `arm'.
Mu. supu `arm'.
KW su`pu`

Sa. sOrkOd `to sip'.
Mu. surkud `to sip'.
KW sO`rkO`d

Sa. sOrO?
  ~ sOrlO? `to insert '.  !orig. sOro?
  ~ sOrlo?
Mu. sOrO?
  ~ sOrlO? `to insert'.
KW sOrO?
  ~ sOrlO?
| l perhaps some infix (RDM), or original, with rl - rr - r (DS); cf. hOrO? `id.'.

Sa. soro `shelter; to shelter'.
Mu. suru `shelter; to shelter'.
KW su`ru`

Sa. sORO `to enter'.
Mu. sORO `to enter'.

Sa. sOrta `to change sides, e.g. while washing cattle '.  ! r `sic'.
  ~ sORa M120.
Mu. suRta `to change sides, e.g. while washing cattle'.
KW sO`Rta

``^tree sp.: marking nut'':
Kh. sOsO `the Marking Nut tree (%Semicarpus_Anacardium)'.
Sa. sOsO `the Marking Nut tree (%Semicarpus_Anacardium)'.
Mu. sOsO `the Marking Nut tree (%Semicarpus_Anacardium)'.
Ho sOsO `the Marking Nut tree (%Semicarpus_Anacardium)'.
Bh. sOsO `the Marking Nut tree (%Semicarpus_Anacardium)'.
Ku. coso
  ~ soso `the Marking Nut tree (%Semicarpus_Anacardium)'.

``^insect sp.'':
Sa. sOsrOj `locust'.
Mu. sOnsrOd
  ~ sOnsOrOd `locust'.
KW sOrOj
  ~ sOrOd
|The only example of this j : d correspondence; the n is sporadic (RDM). Presumably reduplication is assumed, but since it is present in both languages one might reconstruct sO.sOrOj etc. (DS).

Sa. soto? `to follow'.
Mu. sutu? `to follow'.
KW su`tu`?

Sa. sOuOG `to bake'.
Mu. OyOG `to bake'.
  ~ OyOG
|This is the only example of a lost initial C in Santali (RDM), except h? (DS).

Sa. suba `root'.
Mu. suba `root'.
KW suba

Sa. sud `stream'.
Mu. sud `stream'.
KW sud

Sa. suGga `to sting'.
Mu. suGga `to sting'.
KW suGga

Sa. suluj `snot'.
Mu. suluj `snot'.
KW suluj

Sa. sumuG `until'.
Mu. sumuG `until'.
KW sumuG

Sa. sunduj `to hide'.
Mu. sunduj `to hide'.
KW sunduj

Sa. sunum `oil'.
Mu. sunum
  ~ sunuG `oil'.
Ho sunum `oil'.
Bh. sunum `oil'.
KW sunum
Ku. $unum `oil'.

Kh. supli-kaTa `foot'.
Mu. supu `upper arm (from the elbow to the shoulder)'.
Bh. supli `upper part of the foot excluding the toes'.

Sa. susi `pretext'.
Mu. susi `pretext'.
KW susi

Sa. susun `dance'.
Mu. susun `dance'.
KW susun
|Reduplicated su.sun from sun.sun? (DS).

Sa. tab `to pierce'.
Mu. tab `to pierce'.
KW tab

Kh. dhabe
  ~ dabe `quickly'.  !(after verbal roots)
  ~ sObrE dhabe
  ~ sObrE dabe `quickly'.
Mu. tab(H)
  ~ ta:b `quickly, fast, speedily'.  !adverbial affix
  ~ dha:b(N) `quickly, fast, speedily'.  !adverbial affix
  ~ sEndha:beme(H) `to walk fast'.  !EM

``^rice, flattened'':
Sa. tabEn `flattened rice'.
Mu. tabEn `flattened rice'.
KW tabEn

``^lie on stomach'':
Sa. tabEr `to lie on one's stomach '.  !also tavEr (M105)
Mu. tabEr `to lie on one's stomach'.
KW tabEr

Sa. tabuj `soft'.
Mu. tabuj `soft'.
KW tabuj

Sa. TaDa `pole'.
Mu. TaDa `pole'.

Sa. taGgi `to wait'.
Mu. taGgi `to wait'.
KW taGgi

Sa. tahEr `cucumber'.
Mu. tahEr `cucumber'.
KW tahEr

Sa. tahE~ `to stay'.
Mu. tahin `to stay'.
KW tahE`n
|Santali seems to have changed En to E~ (RDM).

Sa. takOb `to strike'.
Mu. takub `to strike'.
KW takO`b

Sa. takOE `to spin'.
Mu. takui `to spin'.
KW takO`E`

So. tAraGDi(M) `middle'.
Sa. tala `middle'.
Mu. tala `middle'.
Ho tala `middle'.
Bh. tala `middle'.
KW tala
Ku. tala `middle'.
|Cf. KW tOl `id.'; cf. also KW tara `half'.

``^step over'':
Sa. talOm
  ~ taRam `to step over'.
Mu. taROm `to step over'.
KW talOm
|Assumes * l - * L - * R, but this is the only example of this variation in Santali (RDM); reconstruction with * R seems at least equally plausible, given the R in Mundari (DS).

Sa. talsa `to shatter'.
Mu. talsa `to shatter'.
KW talsa

Sa. tam `to beat'.
Mu. tam `to beat'.
KW tam

So. tamji(R4)
Go. tamgi(RR)
Gu. tamgi(RR) `eight'.  !dial.

Kh. tamras `guava'.
Mu. tamras `guava'.

``^wild sheep'':
Sa. tan `wild sheep'.
Mu. tani `wild sheep'.
KW tani
|One of a few Santali forms which drop final V (RDM).

``^spread legs'':
Sa. TaNDa `to spread one's legs'.
Mu. TaNDa `to spread one's legs'.

Sa. tapa? `to throw'.
Mu. tapa? `to throw'.
KW tapa?

Sa. tapiJ `to tap'.
Mu. tapiJ
  ~ tapiG `to tap '.  ! sapiG
  ~ sapiJ M102.
KW tapiJ
  ~ tapiG

Sa. tapu? `to settle'.
Mu. tapu? `to settle'.
KW tapu?

Sa. tara `half'.
Mu. tara `half'.
KW tara
|Cf. tala `middle' and So. tA- `half-'.

So. tAmbED(M) `to shoulder'.
Gu. tunar `shoulder'.
Kh. taran `shoulder'.
Ju. taran `shoulder'.
Sa. taren `shoulder'.
Mu. taran `shoulder'.
Ho taran `shoulder'.
Bh. taran `shoulder'.
KW taran  !but why e in Sa.?

``^fruit sp.'':
Sa. tarOb `kind of fruit'.
Mu. tarOb `kind of fruit'.
KW tarOb

``^animal sp.'':
Sa. tarub `kind of animal'.
Mu. tarub `kind of animal'.
KW tarub

Sa. tasE `to spread (to dry)'.
Mu. tasi
  ~ tasE `to spread (to dry)'.
KW tasE`
  ~ tasE  !orig. tasi` corrected from M094.

So. ta'ar(R) `to shine, to be bright, to bloom'.
So. tar(R) `white'.
Gu. tara:dutu `light'.
Kh. tardi `to light a lamp, lamp light, a lamp'.
Mu. TaTi `a lamp'.
Bh. ThaThi `earthen lamp'.

Sa. tawij `to draw'.
Mu. tawij `to draw'.
KW tawij

So. taJal `the broad-headed crocodile (%Crocodilus_trigonops)'.
Sa. tayan `the broad-headed crocodile (%Crocodilus_trigonops)'.
Mu. tayan `the broad-headed crocodile (%Crocodilus_trigonops)'.
Ho taen `the broad-headed crocodile (%Crocodilus_trigonops)'.

Sa. tayOm `back'.
Mu. tayOm `back'.
KW tayOm

Kh. tai
  ~ tae `from'.  !also taiy `Joh. 6,23'.
Sa. tayOm
  ~ taenOm `behind, after, to leave behind'.
Mu. tayOm
  ~ taeOm
  ~ taiOm `after, following, back, behind'.

``^today'':  ??%%subentries
Ju. missiG `today'.
Sa. tehteheJ(P)
  ~ te-heJ(M) `today'.
Mu. ti-siG(H)
  ~ ti-hiG(M)
  ~ isiG(N) `today'.
Ho tisiG `today'.
Bj. tisiG `today'.
Bh. tihiG `today'.
KW ti`-si`J
  ~ ti`-hi`J
  ~ ti`-si`G
  ~ ti`-hi`G
Ku. teG `today'.
|The s : h correspondence is unusual in these languages (RDM); contains siG `sun, day' (DS).

Sa. tEba? `to reach'.
Mu. tEbak `to reach '.  ! tEba? M125.
KW tEbak  ! tEba? M125.

Kh. tegOe `to move'.
Sa. tEgE.tEgE `tugging, pulling, to pull about'.

``^carry on head'':
So. teG `to carry on one's head'.  !Ram.: to carry on one's shoulder or neck
Go. tiG-ai `to carry on one's head'.
Kh. tE'j `to carry on one's head'.
Mu. tEGgO? `to carry on one's shoulder'.

So. tAnAG(?) `to stand up'.
Go. tinaG(RR),, tinaGgu(V) `to stand up'.
Gu. tinaGu
  ~ tunon(R4) `to stand up'.
Re. tinaG(RR) `to stand up'.
Kh. tOGgOn `to stand'.
Sa. teGgo `to raise, stand up'.
Mu. tiGgu
  ~ tiGgun `to stand'.
KW ti`Ggu`

Sa. TEGgOj `small axe'.
Mu. kONDEj `small axe'.
|Metathesis in the Santali form (RDM).

So. taJ `to weave'.
Gu. taJ(R4) `to weave'.
Kh. taJ `to weave'.
Sa. teJ `to weave'.
Mu. tEG `to weave'.
Ho teG `to weave'.
Bh. teG `to weave'.
Tu. teGge: `to weave'.
  ~ tEG

``elder ^brother-in-law'':
Sa. tEJa `elder brother-in-law'.
Mu. tEJa `elder brother-in-law '.  !cited as tEJja M119.

``^worm, ^insect'':
Kh. tijO? `worm'.
Sa. tejo `creeping crawling insects, maggots'.
Mu. tiju?(Bage), tiju(Bhad) `any insect or worm'.
  ~ malaRa-tiju
  ~ mala~R~a~-tiju `a caterpillar'.  !EM
Bh. tiju `worm, insect'.
KW ti`ju`

Sa. teke `to boil'.
Mu. tiki `to boil'.
KW ti`ki`

``^distribute, divide'':
Sa. tel `to distribute, divide'.
Mu. til `to distribute, divide'.
KW ti`l

Sa. tEla `to receive'.
Mu. tEla `to receive'.
KW tEla

Sa. tele `lice'.
Mu. tili `lice'.
KW ti`li`

Sa. tElGga `tall'.
Mu. tElEGga `tall'.
KW tElEGga
|The Santali form is the only one cited here with a triple cluster (RDM); cf. Kharia for this same cluster, due to syncope (DS).

Kh. tEn `to trample'.
  ~ OtOn `to press down'.
Sa. tEn `to press, keep down'.
  ~ tEJ.tEJ `tight, tense, taut'.
  ~ lin `to press with the hands'.
Mu. tEn(M) `to press, cover'.
  ~ ThEn
  ~ lEn `to get jammed'.
  ~ lEn `to press, express'.
  ~ lin `to press, to squeeze'.
Ho ten `to get jammed'.
  ~ len `to press'.
KW tEn
Ku. Ten `to throng, to choke'.

``^lean'':  ??%%subenter, cf. So. Der
Sa. TENDEr `to lean against something '.  !??orig. tENDO`r
Mu. TENDEr `to lean against something'.

Sa. tEpEd `to close'.
Mu. tEpEd `to close'.
KW tEpEd

Sa. tEraG `to shoot'.
Mu. tEraG `to shoot'.
KW tEraG

``^ebony ^tree'':
So. tarel-neb(R) `a tree called kendU `in Oriya''.
Kh. tiREl
  ~ tiRel
  ~ tiReil(Al.1334), tiril(Roy) `ebony (%Diospyros_melanoxylon,_Roxb.)'.
Sa. terel `the ebony tree (%Diospyros_melanoxylon,_Roxb.)'.
Mu. tiril `the ebony tree (%Diospyros_melanoxylon,_Roxb.)'.  |M kind of fruit
Ho tiril `the ebony tree (%Diospyros_melanoxylon,_Roxb.)'.
KW ti`ri`l

So. terAm-buD(R) `a kind of bee'.
  ~ tEram-da(R) `honey'.
  ~ tErAm/ tEr `a species of small wasp, a kind of bee'.
Kh. tErOm `honey'.
Sa. tErOm `a kind of bee (%Apis_florea)'.
Mu. tErOm `a kind of bee (%Apis_florea)'.
KW tErOm
Ku. te:rmu `bee'.

Sa. tEtaG `to be thirsty; thirst'.
Mu. tEtaG `to be thirsty; thirst'.
KW tEtaG

So. DAnnAG `lizard'.
Kh. TETEGga `lizard'.
Mu. TETEGga `chameleon'.
Ku. te:te:Gga
  ~ titiGga `lizard'.

Sa. ThA~T `barren, childless'.
  ~ DENDE `tailless'.
Mu. TaNTi `barren, past the age of breeding'.

Kh. ThO `to adhere'.
Sa. ThEkOm `to stick to, adhere, cling to'.
Sa. thOkO bOkO
  ~ thOkOr bOkOr `soiled, besmeared, stained'.
Sa. thOkRE `to be besmeared, to adhere to, to stick to'.

Kh. DhEDhrEl `to thunder'.
Sa. ThEr `a stroke of lightning'.
  ~ cETEr `thunderbolt'.
Mu. ThEr `to thunder, lightning'.

Kh. Thauka `correct, right'.  !Joh. 5,30-32
Sa. Thik `right, proper, exact, good'.  !Hi.
Mu. Thauka `right, proper, exact, true'.
Mu. Thik `right, proper, exact, good'.

So. si'i/ si `hand'.  ! ti- in ti-par `to take with the fingers'.
Go. si(RR) `hand'.
Gu. titi(R4) `hand'.
Re. ti(RR) `hand'.
Kh. ti? `hand'.
Ju. iti `hand'.
Sa. ti `hand'.
Ma. ti `hand'.
Mu. ti?
  ~ ti: `hand'.
Ho ti `hand'.
Bj. ti? `hand'.
Bh. ti? `hand'.
Dh. tihi `hand'.
Kw. ti `hand'.
KW ti
Ku. ti `hand'.

Sa. tiGgi `to light'.
Mu. tiGgi `to light'.
KW tiGgi

So. timeG(R) `hot'.
  ~ tuGal `to add fuel, logs to a fire'.  !Ram. has to burn, kindle fire
  ~ guj `blow on a fire'.  !in Er--guj `to try, do one's best'.
Kh. timsOG `fire'.  ! sOG cf. V252.
  ~ tuGgal `to be warm'.
Sa. tiGgi `to put fuel at the fire'.
Mu. tiG `to kindle fire'.
Ho tiG `to put fuel at the fire'.
Ku. tiGgi `to light a fire'.

``^lead by the hand'':
Sa. tij `to lead by the hand'.
Mu. tij `to lead by the hand'.
KW tij

So. tAr+b(D)/ t+r(R4) `cloud'.
Go. tarup(RR), tirub(RR) `cloud'.
Gu. tirib(R4) `cloud'.
Re. tirib(RR) `cloud'.

So. tinji(R4)
Go. timgi(RR)
Gu. timgi(RR) `nine'.  !dial.

Kh. tOhOn `noon'.
Sa. tikin `noon, midday'.
Mu. tikin `noon, midday'.
Ho tikin `noon, midday'.
Bh. Tikin `noon, midday'.
KW tikin

Sa. tirmid `to rub one's eyes'.
Mu. tirmid `to rub one's eyes'.
KW tirmid
|Is a vowel-harmonized morpheme "eye" here? (DS).

``^bird sp.'':
Sa. TirOm `kind of bird'.
Mu. Tirum `kind of bird'.
KW TirO`m

Sa. tirub `to bow'.
Mu. tirub `to bow'.
KW tirub

So. taGliy
  ~ taGlij
  ~ taGliJ/ taG `cow, cattle'.
Go. taGli `cow, bullock'.
  ~ taGgili(V) `bull'.
Gu. kitaG `cow'.
Kh. tOmliG `milk'.
Sa. toa `milk, the female breast'.
Mu. toa `milk, the female breast'.
Bh. toa `milk, the female breast'.
KW tOa

Gu. utob-siG(R4)
Re. ntob-siG(RR) `egg'.

Kh. tagO'j `to chew'.
Sa. tOgO'j
  ~ taga'j tOgO'j `to chew quickly'.
  ~ tAguR nAsuR
  ~ tAguR tAsuR `to eat greedily, to devour'.
Mu. tagOe'j `to chew'.
Ho tagoe `to chew'.

Sa. tOhab `to grasp '.  !RDM says V2 is assimilated to V1??
Mu. tOhab `to grasp'.
KW tOhab

Sa. tOhOd `to stumble'.
Mu. tOhOd `to stumble'.
KW tOhOd

Sa. TOhOr `to feel'.
Mu. TOhOr
  ~ TOOr `to feel'.

Sa. tOk `pestle'.
Mu. tuku `pestle'.
KW tO`kO`
  ~ tu`ku`

Sa. tOl `middle'.
Mu. tOl `middle'.
KW tOl
|Cf. KW tala `middle'.

``^tie, ^bind'':
So. tOl `to wear jewelry, to wear a necklace, to wear'.  !Ram. `to tie, to bind'.
  ~ tOl-bad `to tie, to bind'.
Go. tol(RR) `to bind, to tie'.
Gu. tol(R4) `to bind, to tie'.
Re. tol(RR) `to bind, to tie'.
Kh. tOl `to bind, to tie'.
Sa. tOl `to bind, to tie'.
Mu. tOl
  ~ thOl `to bind, to tie'.
Ho tol `to bind, to tie'.
Bh. tol `to bind, to tie'.
KW tOl
Ku. tol `to bind, to tie'.

Sa. tOlOG `tail'.
Mu. tOlOG `tail'.

Sa. tOlOj `to squeeze'.
Mu. tuluj `to squeeze'.
KW tO`lO`j

So. tOnan(R3) `sister'.
Gu. tonan(R4) `sister'.

Sa. TONDaG `forest'.
Mu. TONDaG `forest'.

``^bury, ^grave''.
Sa. topa `a grave, to put, dig in the ground'.
Mu. topa `to bury, to cover'.

Sa. tope `short'.
Mu. tupi `short'.
KW tu`pi`

Sa. topo `wet; to get wet'.
Mu. tupu `wet; to get wet'.
KW tu`pu`

So. tuttUD(R)
  ~ tuttum(R) `squirrel'.
Sa. toR `a squirrel (%Sciurus_tristiatus, %Sciurus_palmarum)'.
Mu. tuRu `a squirrel (%Sciurus_tristiatus, %Sciurus_palmarum)'.
Ho tu `a squirrel (%Sciurus_tristiatus, %Sciurus_palmarum)'.
Bh. tuR `a squirrel (%Sciurus_tristiatus, %Sciurus_palmarum)'.
KW tu`Ru`
Ku. tur `a squirrel (%Sciurus_tristiatus, %Sciurus_palmarum)'.

Sa. tOra `perhaps'.
Mu. tOra `perhaps'.
KW tOra

``^iguana (^lizard)'':
Sa. tOrhOd `iguana'.
Mu. tOrhOd `iguana'.
KW tOrhOd

Sa. tOrOj `ash'.
Mu. tOrOj `ash'.
KW tOrOj

``^neck, ^nape of the neck'':
So. sAGka `neck'.  !Oriya
Kh. kOGkO `neck'.
Ju. kuGka `neck'.
Sa. totka `the nape of the neck'.  !Cf. Sa. kaGkha `edge, brim'.
Mu. tutka `back of the neck or head'.  ! tud-ka(M)
KW tO`d-ka

Kh. thOthOr `throat'.
Mu. ToTora `throat, windpipe'.
Ho uTuTua `throat, windpipe'.
Ku. thutuRa `a kind of trumpet'.  !??
Ku. to:tara: `throat, windpipe'.

Kh. tuyu `jackal'.
Sa. toyo `jackal (%Canis_aureus)'.
Mu. tuyu `jackal (%Canis_aureus)'.
Ho tuyu `jackal (%Canis_aureus)'.
Bh. tuiyu `jackal (%Canis_aureus)'.
KW tu`yu`

Sa. tubEd `to feed'.
Mu. tubid `to feed'.
KW tubE`d

Sa. TuDa? `to dip'.
Mu. TuDa? `to dip'.
KW TuDa?  ! Da? water?

Sa. TuGki `basket'.
Mu. TuGki `basket'.
KW TuGki

So. tui(R) `to take with the tip of a finger a drop of liquor or honey'.
So. tuj-jal(R) `to dip a finger into a liquid, etc., and to lick it in order to test its quality'.
Kh. tuigOl `point, to point to, to point out, index (finger)'.
Mu. tuigOl `point, to point to, to point out, index (finger)'.

So. tuJ `to shoot with an arrow'.
Kh. tuJ(ABDP)
  ~ tu~y~(P) `to shoot with an arrow'.
Sa. tuJ `to shoot with an arrow'.
Mu. tuJ `to shoot with an arrow'.  !M; Pinnow tuiJ
  ~ TupuiG
  ~ ThupuiG `to shoot each other'.  !with p-infix and altered initial
Ho tuiG `to shoot with an arrow'.
Bh. tui `to shoot with an arrow'.
KW tuJ
Ku. tuiG `to shoot with an arrow'.

Kh. thoka `nest'.  ! khota
Sa. tukA `nest'.
Mu. tuka `nest'.
Ho tuka `nest'.
KW tuka

Sa. tukuj `to mend'.
Mu. tukuj `to mend'.
KW tukuj

Sa. tulpa `short'.
Mu. tulpa? `short'.
KW tulpa?
  ~ tulpa

Sa. tumbud `to put into one's mouth'.
Mu. tumbud `to put into one's mouth'.
KW tumbud

So. an-tuG
  ~ om-tuG
  ~ uG-tuG
  ~ um-tuG `to finish'.
Kh. um Ontu'D
  ~ um tu'Dna `unending'.
Sa. TuNDu `end'.
Mu. TuNDu `end, to end, to finish'.
Bh. TuNDu `end'.

``^feel by ^touching'':
Sa. tunum `to feel by touching'.
Mu. tunum `to feel by touching'.
KW tunum

So. tuDru(D) `six'.
Go. turgi(RR) `six'.
Gu. tir(RR) `six'.
Re. ti'iri(RR) `six'.
Kh. tibhru
  ~ tibru `six'.
Sa. turui `six'.
Ma. turui(ya `six'.
Mu. turui
  ~ turuya `six'.
Ho turuia `six'.
Bj. turuja `six'.
Bh. turui
  ~ turuya `six'.
Dh. turui
  ~ turuya `six'.
KW turui
Ku. turu
  ~ turui
  ~ turuiya `six'.  !CF tur `in Ku. turkom six only, Ku. turtur six by six'.

``^pluck; leaf ^bud'':
Sa. Tusa `to pluck; leaf bud'.
Mu. Tusa `to pluck; leaf bud'.
KW Tusa

Sa. TuTi `arrow'.
Mu. TuTi `arrow'.

So. u
  ~ U `prefix without specific meaning, orig. demonstrative'.  E.g. in U-yUG/ yUG `the sun', U-ab/ ab `vegetable'.
Kh. u `this'.  E.g. in ua' thOm `therewith, with this', u-jE? `this', u-kaR, u-kAR `this man, this person'.
Mu. u- `prefix'.  |In u-sasan `the sasan where bones are buried, from sasan burial ground (Sk. $ma$a:na'.

``^drink, `^swallow'':'.
Gu. yi:du `drink'.
  ~ id-i: `drinking'.
Kh. u'D `to drink, to suck'.
Sa. u'd `to swallow'.  !M also od
Mu. u'd `to swallow'.
Ho ud `to swallow'.
Bh. ud `to swallow'.
KW ud
  ~ u`d  !if od isn't a mistake
Ku. ud `to swallow'.

Sa. udu? `to tell'.
Mu. udub `to tell'.
KW udu?
  ~ udub

So. kum-si(R)
  ~ kuG-si `elbow'.
Kh. kehni
  ~ ke~hR~i `elbow'.  !Ridd. 153
Mu. uka? `elbow, to strike with the elbow'.

So. uRa/ ul `mango'.
Go. uRa'a `mango'.
Gu. ili `mango'.
Re. li `mango'.
Sa. ul `mango tree (%Mangifera_indica,_L.)'.
Mu. ul
  ~ uli `mango'.
Ho uli `mango'.
Bh. uli `mango'.
KW ul
  ~ uli

So. bijOl `to spit'.  !Ram. has a noun, meaning saliva, CF ole
  ~ ueda(R) `nausea'.  ! ulda(HJP), after Kuiper
Gu. lollo:r `to vomit'.
Kh. bala `nausea, to vomit'.
Sa. ulA `to spit out, eject from the mouth, vomit'.
  ~ uli da? `saliva, spittle'.
Mu. ula
  ~ hul `to vomit'.
  ~ ulida? `saliva'.
Ho ula `to spit out'.
  ~ ulida? `saliva'.
Bh. ula `to vomit'.
KW ula
Ku. ula `to vomit'.

So. u'u/ u `hair of the head'.
  ~ upp+r/ p+r `hair of the body, wool'.
Go. uba:-koi `hair'.
Gu. jibbo
  ~ iGgbo: `hair'.
Re. ugboJ `hair'.
Kh. ului
  ~ sOlui
  ~ sO'lui `hair'.  !to -lui `cf. Sa. hului to shake, to give a reminder (spirits), Ku. holoi(K) `to shake, to give a reminder (spirits), Sa. dului untangled, unravelled, straight (hair, grass)''.
Sa. u'b `hair'.
Mu. u'b `hair'.
Ho ub `hair, wool'.
Bj. ub `hair, wool'.
Bh. ub `hair, wool'.
KW ub
Ku. hup `hair, wool'.

So. uma(R) `to bathe, to wash oneself, to be pregnant'.
Gu. de:ya: kim `to bathe'.
Kh. oa? `to bathe'.
Sa. um `to bathe, wash, baptize'.
Mu. um `to bathe, to wash one's body'.
Bh. um `to bathe, to wash one's body'.
KW um

``^shade, shadow'':
So. ummul(R)
  ~ uJJul `shadow, reflection'.
  ~ m+lmal `mirage'.
Sa. umul `shade, shadow'.
Mu. umul
  ~ umbul `shade, shadow'.
Ho umbul `shade, shadow'.
Bh. umbul `shade, shadow'.
KW umul
  ~ ummul
|The b `seems secondary but irregular' (RDM); these intrusions are particularly frequent in N_VL (DS).  Cf. So. ubmul'.

Kh. uphia
  ~ uFia `flying ant'.
Sa. upi `swarming white ants'.
Mu. ufia(Ban) `flying ant'.
Ho upi `cockroach'.

Sa. ur `to dig'.
Mu. ur `to dig'.
KW ur

So. uyub(R) `warm'.  !dial.
  ~ pAJ+m `lukewarm'.
Kh. urum `warm'.
  ~ usum
  ~ usuG `lukewarm'.
  ~ rum `to burn'.
Sa. urgum `warm, tepid'.
Mu. urgum `warm, tepid'.
  ~ ugum.ugum `sultry'.
  ~ uru'b `to burn'.
Ho urgum `warm, tepid'.
  ~ urub `to burn'.
Bh. urgum `warm, tepid'.
KW urgum
Ku. urgum `lukewarm'.
@(V118,M066, cf. V192,V388)

So. pAJ+m `lukewarm'.
Kh. y~Om `to bask, warm oneself'.
@(V388, cf. V118)

So. rADu `hard, tough'.
Kh. uri'D `hard, to be hard'.
Sa. uri'j `firm, tight, fast'.
Mu. uri'j(K) `tight, to come off, as dried skin'.

``^cattle, ^bullock'':
Kh. OrEj `cow, bullock'.
Ju. orai `bullock'.
Sa. uri'j `bullock, ox, draught-cattle'.
Mu. uri'j `bullock, cattle in general'.
Ho uri'j
  ~ uri `bullock, cattle in general'.
KW urij

Sa. uru `insect'.
Mu. uru `insect'.
KW uru

Kh. iyam `to cry'.
Mu. yam `to cry, to weep'.
Ho yam `to weep'.
Bj. ejam `to weep'.
Bh. iam `to weep'.
Ku. yam `to weep'.